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HER Number:MDV3502
Name:Down Tor Stone Row, walkhampton

Summary

Down Tor single stone row is situated on a saddle between the north-west flank of Eylesbarrow and Down Tor. The alignment is 316 metres long and contains at least 174 stones, with the tallest being present at either end. The standing stone at the western end of the alignment measures 2.8 metres high, whilst that at the eastern end is 1.6 metres high. The stones along the central length of the alignment vary in height between 1.0 metres and 0.2 metres high. The large stone denoting the western end of the alignment and an unknown number of others were re-erected by Baring-Gould and Burnard in 1890.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 588 693
Map Sheet:SX56NE
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishWalkhampton
DistrictWest Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishWALKHAMPTON

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • MPP Archaeological Item Dataset: 130920
  • National Monuments Record: 438583
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56NE/177
  • Old SAM County Ref: 382
  • Old SAM Ref: 24084
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division: SX56NE29

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • STONE ALIGNMENT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC (Between))

Full description

Spence Bate, C., 1871, Prehistoric Antiquities of Dartmoor (Article in Serial). SDV277110.


Brent, F., 1883, On a group of prehistoric remains on Dartmoor, 218 (Article in Serial). SDV273189.


Worth, R. H., 1892, Fourteenth Report of the Barrow Committee, 48 (Article in Serial). SDV237177.


Worth, R. N., 1892, The Stone Rows of Dartmoor, 398-400 (Article in Serial). SDV237176.

(Site visited some time in 1891-estimate) Single row with slight curvature. At the east end, some stones lie out of line, perhaps suggesting an original double row, but these may only have been displaced. 126 stones counted, irregular spacing and size, many of the missing stones were in place, though out of site. Some damage by cart track at the end. Spence Bate's observations inaccurate.


Brailsford, J. W., 1938, Bronze Age Stone Monuments of Dartmoor, 446 (Article in Serial). SDV304210.


Worth, R. H., 1946, The Stone Rows of Dartmoor. Part 1, 294 (Article in Serial). SDV251172.

Down Tor; stone row and three cairns, though the stone row is actually on Hingston Hill and lies along the water parting between Deancombe and Newleycombe Brook. At the west end of the row is a barrow with a retaining circle. Near the circle the stones of the row are very large; that nearest being 3.91 metres. The direction of length is north 71 degrees east. Somewhat convex to the north. Its eastern termination is in a small menhir, which measured 2.89 metres long, 0.91 metres wide. In the line of the row, but over 213 metres from the terminal menhir is a cairn 16.46 metres in diameter at the base, and 10.97 metres at the top. Bronze Age (SX56NE/79). 174 stones in the row. Nothing remains of the cist within the cairn and retaining circle at the west end of the stone row. Row. No.20.


Copeland, G. W., 1952, 21st Report of the Plymouth and District Branch, 330 (Article in Serial). SDV237178.


Worth, R. H., 1953, Dartmoor, 212 (Monograph). SDV231148.


National Monuments Record, 1977, NMR SX5869, 1 (Aerial Photograph). SDV237174.


Grinsell, L. V., 1978, Dartmoor Barrows, 99,107,123,175 (Article in Serial). SDV273224.

(Site visited 6/09/1972) Cairn with retaining circle 12.5 metres in diameter. Breton stated that it formally enclosed a large cist. Stone row proceeds to east-north-east downhill and then uphill aligned with but stopping well short of cairn.


Emmett, D. D., 1979, Stone Rows: The Traditional View Reconsidered, 111 (Article in Serial). SDV251087.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1979, SX56NE29 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV237172.

At SX58696926, on a slight east-facing slope at 364.0 metres OD, is a cairn with cairn circle and from it on an orientation of 69 ½ degrees east of Grid North runs a stone row extending for 340.0 metres from SX58706927 to SX59026938. The cairn circle consists of 26 upright stones and possibly two more now recumbent; it has an internal diameter of 11.5 metres. Within the circle is a cairn of 8.5 meters in diameter and 0.6 metres in height with a small depression in the centre which may be the site of a cist.
The stone row does not form a perfectly straight line, being bowed to the north to a maximum of 2.5 metres off alignment at the centre of the row. The individual stones tend to be smaller towards the centre of the row, all the very longest being at either end. 170 stones are visible of which eleven are recumbent and one semi-recumbent. The standing stone at the western end of the row measures 0.8 metres by 0.5 metres and is 2.8 metres high, and the terminating stone at the eastern end is 0.7 metres by 0.6 metres and 1.6 metres high.
The stone row is in direct alignment with the cairn at SX 59196944.


Hemery, E., 1983, High Dartmoor, 147 (Monograph). SDV249702.

"A retaining-circle, on the east slope of Hingston, measures thirty-seven feet in diameter and entirely encloses the cairn in which the (now vanished) kistvaen was centrally placed. Eastward from it, and beginning at a stone nearly ten feet high, there runs an impressive single row 1,145 feet in length, which terminates at a blocking stone."


Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1985, Aerial Photograph Project (Interpretation). SDV319854.

Visible and recorded.


Breton, H. H., 1990, Beautiful Dartmoor and its Interesting antiquities, 40-2 (Monograph). SDV237184.


Turner, J. R., 1990, Ring Cairns, Stone Circles and Related Monuments on Dartmoor, 54,78 (Article in Serial). SDV229817.

"Only where monuments have been incorrectly reconstructed, as at Down Tor do stone rows align directly with the centres of associated cairns."


Gerrard, S., 1993, 130920 (Un-published). SDV237173.

Single stone alignment oriented east-north-east to west-south-west, although it does not form a perfectly straight line, being bowed to the north to a maximum of 2.5 metres off alignment at the centre of the alignment. The alignment includes a 316 metres long row of at least 174 stones, with the tallest stones being present at either end. The standing stone at the west end of the alignment measures 2.8 metres high, whilst that at the east end is 1.6 metres high. The stones along the central length of the alignment vary in height between 1.0 metres and 0.2 metres high. The large stone denoting the west end of the alignment and an unknown number of others were re-erected by Baring-Gould and Burnard in 1890.
The alignment is in direct line with an encircled cairn lying 4.0 metres west of the west end and a round cairn lying 180 metres to the east of the east end at SX59196944. Breton believed that the alignment continued to the edge of the round cairn and that most of the stones lay below the turf. There is however no field evidence visible today to confirm his belief.


Butler, J., 1994, Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume Three - The South-West, 71-4, 204, 208 (Monograph). SDV137656.

"Much of its present appearance is due to Bernard and his associates who re-erected many of them in 1894. Bate was the first to describe the row in 1871 and it was planned by Lukis a few years later. At the western end the row is orientated towards the centre of a ring of 27 tall stones, irregularly spaced and 12 metres in diameter, surrounding the cairn but well outside its base. Some of these stones have also been re-erected as only 20 were standing in 1882 ... Numerous tinners' diggings pit the surface around a slightly larger cairn a short distance to the north-west (14.0 by 1.3 metres), this one without an outer ring of slabs or associated row."


Quinnell, N. V., 1995, Down Tor Stone Row (Personal Comment). SDV237171.

Stone row as described by S. Gerrard.


Newman, P., 2007, Cramber Tor Training Area Monument Baseline Condition Survey, No. 438583 (Report - Survey). SDV348210.

Site visit 1st August 2006. Stone alignment and cairn situated on a saddle 620 metres east of Down Tor. Alignment orientated east-north-east to west-south-west, running for 316 metres and containing at least 174 stones with the tallest at either end. The popularity of the site has raised some conservation concerns. Adjacent to the Stone Row (SX58696926 - 59026938) is a track way which is fast becoming a large swathe. This, especially when wet, is causing severe erosion to the surrounding area and ultimately the stone row itself. Good, stable condition.
The Cairn circle (SX58696926) has also suffered some disturbance in the form of a pit, probably a result of unrecorded excavation or robbing. The pit has a diameter of approx 3.2 metres by 3.0 metres and is 0.5 metres deep.


Probert, S., 2008, Follow-Up Works to Cramber Tor Archaeological Baseline Condition Survey, Dartmoor Training Area, 4, Fig. 1, No. 438583 (Report - Survey). SDV351304.

Several of the stones have erosion hollows around their bases, the result of being used as rubbing posts by livestock. However, these hollows are showing signs of regeneration as the numbers of animals grazing on this part of the moor declines. The stone remain in a stable condition but the footpath at the northern end of the row is becoming eroded. Suggested that the condition of the footpaths continue to be monitored and that military activity be excluded from the immediate area.


Ordnance Survey, 2011, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV346129.

'Stone row' is depicted on the modern mapping.


English Heritage, 2011, National Heritage List for England (National Heritage List for England). SDV347072.

This monument includes a single stone alignment and a cairn situated on a saddle between the north-west flank of Eylesbarrow and Down Tor. The alignment is orientated from east-north-east to west-south-west, although it does not form a perfectly straight line, being bowed to the north to a maximum of 2.5 metres off alignment. The alignment is 316 metres long and contains at least 174 stones, with the tallest being present at either end. The standing stone at the western end of the alignment measures 2.8 metres high, whilst that at the eastern end is 1.6 metres high. The stones along the central length of the alignment vary in height between 1.0 metres and 0.2 metres high. The large stone denoting the western end of the alignment and an unknown number of others were re-erected by Baring-Gould and Burnard in 1890. The cairn with an encircling kerb, lies 4.0 metres west of the western end of the stone alignment. The mound measures 8.0 metres in diameter and 0.7 metres high and is surrounded by a kerb which includes 24 orthostats standing between 0.3 and 1.0 metres high, forming a ring with a diameter of 11.5 metres. A hollow in the centre of the mound suggests partial early excavation or robbing. Two tin prospecting pits lie immediately against the western edge of the kerb and form part of a wider group. The stone alignment is in direct line with another cairn at SX 59196944 which is the subject of a separate scheduling (SM 24122). (Scheduled 1956, amended 2000). Other details: SAM UID: 24084. Map object based on this Source.


Greeves, T., May 2012, Cramber Tor Training Area. Monument Condition Survey, 3, No. 438583 (Report - Survey). SDV350251.

Site visit 19th January 2012. Potentially vulnerable to visitor pressure due to several wet and eroded areas along the length of the row on its north side. Good condition. Stability fair.

Sources / Further Reading

  • Monograph: Butler, J.. 1994. Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume Three - The South-West. Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume Three - The South-West. Three. Paperback Volume. 71-4, 204, 208.
  • Article in Serial: Turner, J. R.. 1990. Ring Cairns, Stone Circles and Related Monuments on Dartmoor. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 48. Paperback Volume. 54,78.
  • Monograph: Worth, R. H.. 1953. Dartmoor. Dartmoor. Hardback Volume. 212.
  • Un-published: Gerrard, S.. 1993. 130920. Monument Protection Programme. Archaeological Item Dataset.. Digital.
  • Personal Comment: Quinnell, N. V.. 1995. Down Tor Stone Row. Not Applicable.
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1979. SX56NE29. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
  • Monograph: Breton, H. H.. 1990. Beautiful Dartmoor and its Interesting antiquities. Beautiful Dartmoor and its Interesting Antiquities. Unknown. 40-2.
  • Article in Serial: Worth, R. N.. 1892. The Stone Rows of Dartmoor. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 24. Digital. 398-400.
  • Monograph: Hemery, E.. 1983. High Dartmoor. High Dartmoor. Hardback Volume. 147.
  • Article in Serial: Worth, R. H.. 1892. Fourteenth Report of the Barrow Committee. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 24. Website. 48.
  • Article in Serial: Emmett, D. D.. 1979. Stone Rows: The Traditional View Reconsidered. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 37. Paperback Volume. 111.
  • Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. 1977. NMR SX5869. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Unknown. 1.
  • Article in Serial: Copeland, G. W.. 1952. 21st Report of the Plymouth and District Branch. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 84. Unknown. 330.
  • Article in Serial: Worth, R. H.. 1946. The Stone Rows of Dartmoor. Part 1. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 78. A5 Hardback. 294.
  • Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2011. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital).
  • Article in Serial: Spence Bate, C.. 1871. Prehistoric Antiquities of Dartmoor. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 4.
  • Article in Serial: Brent, F.. 1883. On a group of prehistoric remains on Dartmoor. Journal of the British Archaeological Association. 39. 218.
  • Article in Serial: Grinsell, L. V.. 1978. Dartmoor Barrows. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 36. A5 Paperback. 99,107,123,175.
  • Interpretation: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. 1985. Aerial Photograph Project. Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England Aerial Photograph P. Cartographic.
  • Article in Serial: Brailsford, J. W.. 1938. Bronze Age Stone Monuments of Dartmoor. Antiquity. 12. 446.
  • National Heritage List for England: English Heritage. 2011. National Heritage List for England. Website.
  • Report - Survey: Newman, P.. 2007. Cramber Tor Training Area Monument Baseline Condition Survey. English Heritage. A4 Bound. No. 438583.
  • Report - Survey: Probert, S.. 2008. Follow-Up Works to Cramber Tor Archaeological Baseline Condition Survey, Dartmoor Training Area. A4 Comb Bound. 4, Fig. 1, No. 438583.
  • Report - Survey: Greeves, T.. May 2012. Cramber Tor Training Area. Monument Condition Survey. Tom Greeves Report. A4 Stapled. 3, No. 438583.

Associated Monuments

MDV3375Related to: Cairn 170 metres north-east of Down Tor Stone Row, Walkhampton Common (Monument)
MDV3439Related to: CAIRN in the Parish of Walkhampton (Monument)
MDV59559Related to: Flint leaf-shaped arrowhead found near Down Tor stone row (Find Spot)
MDV52428Related to: PIT in the Parish of Walkhampton (Monument)
MDV52429Related to: PIT in the Parish of Walkhampton (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV6152 - Follow-up Works to Threatened Sites in the Cramber Tor Training Area
  • EDV6153 - Monument Baseline Condition Survey in the Cramber Tor Training Area
  • EDV6034 - Monument Condition Survey in Cramber Tor Training Area

Date Last Edited:Jun 10 2016 1:15PM