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Name: Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire
HER Number: 01022.00.000
Record Type: Monument

Grid Reference: SU 719 735
Administrative Area/Parish:Reading, Reading, Berkshire
Map:Show location on Streetmap

Summary

Benedictine monastery founded in 1121 and consecrated as Cluniac monastery in 1164 by Henry I.

Monument Types

Description

Scheduled Monument list entry number 1007932 (formerly 19019). Reading Abbey was founded by Henry I in AD 1121. The new Abbey was designed for 100 Cluniac monks. The Abbey Church was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket in 1164. It became one of the major religious foundations thanks to Royal patronage and other large endowments. Covering approximately 12ha, the area of the Abbey was closed by a gated boundary wall, within which was an outer court - the Forbury- and an enclosed inner precinct. Its links and rivalries with the secular town are well documented (see HER 02113.00.000). Reading Abbey was dissolved in 1539 and large parts of the buildings were demolished or dismantled for re-use elsewhere.

On Heritage at Risk Register 2009: Designation - Scheduled Monument; Principal Vulnerability - Deterioration – in need of management; Ownership - Local Authority; Condition - Generally unsatisfactory with major localised problems; Trend - Declining <37>.

On Heritage at Risk Register 2012: Designation - Scheduled Monument (No. 1007932); Condition - Generally unsatisfactory with major localised problems; Principal Vulnerability - Deterioration – in need of management; Trend - Declining; Owner type - Local Authority; Contact - Principal Heritage at Risk Adviser 01483 252000 <41>.


<1> Knowles and Hadcock R N, 1953, Medieval Religious Houses (Bibliographic reference). SRD6858.


<2> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1907, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Pages 5-10 (Bibliographic reference). SRD6859.


<3> 1967, MPBW EXCAVATIONS (Bibliographic reference). SRD6860.


<4> 1899-1900, Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal, Page 95 (Journal). SRD6861.


<5> 1911, Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal, Page 1 (Bibliographic reference). SRD6862.


<6> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1971-2, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Pages 65-116 (Journal). SRD6863.


<7> 1907, Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal, Page 5-17 (Journal). SRD6864.


<8> 1895, Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal (Journal). SRD6865.


<9> READING MUSEUM OS SU 77 SW G6 (Bibliographic reference). SRD6866.


<10> READING MUSEUM OS SU 77 SW G18 (Bibliographic reference). SRD6867.


<12> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1907, Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal, Page 5, Pages 8-11 (Journal). SRD6869.


<13> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1981-2, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Pages 33-55 "Excavations at Reading Abbey 1979-1981" by A.G. Vince , P.J. Fasham and J.W. Hawkes (Journal). SRD6870.


<14> Astill, G.G, 1978, Historic towns in Berkshire: An archaeological appraisal (Bibliographic reference). SRD6871.


<15> Kemp B R, 1968, Reading Abbey: An Introduction to the History of the Abbey (Bibliographic reference). SRD6872.


<16> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1975-6, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Pages 29-70 "Excavations at Reading Abbey 1971-3" by C. Slade (Journal). SRD6873.


<17> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1942, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Page 105 (Journal). SRD6874.


<18> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1926, Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal, Page 73 (Journal). SRW5299.


<19> Peake, H, 1931, The Archaeology of Berkshire, Pages 128 and 223 (Bibliographic reference). SRD12746.


<20> Thames Valley Archaeological Services, 2008, New Boundary Wall, St James Church, Reading, Berkshire - An Archaeological Watching Brief (Unpublished document). SRM13675.


<21> Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2009, Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults - Archaeological watching brief report (Unpublished document). SRM13757.


<22> Thames Valley Archaeological Services, 2009, New Power Cable Trench, The Forbury and Abbey Street, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief (Unpublished document). SRM13749.


<23> Museum of London Archaeology Service, 2009, Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults - Archaeological watching brief report (Unpublished document). SRM13757.


<24> Thames Valley Archaeological Services, 2009, New Power Cable Trench, The Forbury and Abbey Street, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief (Unpublished document). SRM13749.


<25> Jacobs, 2008, HMP Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief Report (Unpublished document). SRM13590.


<26> Wessex Archaeology, 2005, Forbury Gardens Restoration Project, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Investigations (Unpublished document). SRM13028.


<27> Slade, Cecil, 2001, The Town of Reading and its Abbey 1121-1997 (Bibliographic reference). SRM13070.


<28> M.D. Lobel (general editor), 1969, Historic Towns - Maps and Plans of Towns and Cities in the British Isles (Bibliographic reference). SRM13770.


<29> Wessex Archaeology, 2005, Forbury Gardens Restoration Project, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Building Recording (Unpublished document). SRM13027.


<30> English Heritage, 1993, Schedule entry copy for Reading Abbey: a Cluniac and Benedictine monastery and Civil War earthwork (Scheduling record). SRM13007.


<31> Pevsner N, 1966, The Buildings of England - Berkshire, Page 19; Pages 198-199 (Bibliographic reference). SRD7728.


<32> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1971-2, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, "Excavation at Reading Abbey 1964-1967" by C.F. Slade. pp 65-116 (Journal). SRD6876.


<33> Berkshire Archaeological Society, 1986-90, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Pages 89-103 (Journal). SRM13006.


<34> Cram Leslie, 1993, A watching brief carried out on 15 to 19 October 1993 at the Reredorter of Reading Abbey (Unpublished document). SRM13004.


<35> Cram Leslie, 1992, Watching brief at Reading Abbey (Unpublished document). SRM13003.


<36> Cram, Leslie, 1994, Forbury Gardens, Reading (Unpublished document). SRM13002.


<37> English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009 South East, Page 73 (Bibliographic reference). SRM13865.


<38> Foundations Archaeology, 2006, Chestnut Walk, Reading, Berkshire (Unpublished document). SRM13873.


<39> GSB Prospection Ltd, 2001, Geophysical Survey Report 2001/30 St Mary's Abbey, Forbury Gardens, Reading (Unpublished document). SRM14297.


<40> Scott Wilson, 2001, Forbury Gardens and Abbey Ruins, Reading - Scheduled Ancient Monument Consent Application (Unpublished document). SRM14298.


<41> English Heritage, 2012, Heritage at Risk Register 2012 South East, Page 79 (English Heritage National Inventory). SRM14455.


<42> English Heritage, 2013, Heritage at Risk Register 2013 South East, Page 73 (English Heritage National Inventory). SRM14638.


<43> Historic England, 2015, Heritage at Risk Register 2015 (Historic England National Inventory). SRM15047.


<44> Sir Henry Englefield, 1779, General Plan of the ruins of Reading Abbey (Cartographic materials). SRM14326.


<45> Foundations Archaeology, 2013, Reading Abbey Gate, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief (Unpublished document). SRM14617.


<46> Foundations Archaeology, 2011, New Fencing at Reading Abbey Ruins, Reading, Berkshire NGR: SU72007353 - Archaeological Watching Brief (Unpublished document). SRM14207.


<47> Thames Valley Archaeological Services, 2015, New Statue Base, Forbury Gardens, Abbot's Walk, Reading , Berkshire (Unpublished document). SRM15165.


<48> Reading Borough Council, 2015, Archaeological Survey Report on the Ruins of Reading Abbey for Reading Borough Council (Unpublished document). SRM15182.


<49> Reading Museum, 1976, REDMG: 2016.50.A1 (Excavation archive). SRM15191.


<50> Purcell, 2014, HMP Reading - Archaeological Desk Based Assessment (Unpublished document). SRM15246.


<51> Purcell, 2014, HMP Reading Historic Building Assessment (Unpublished document). SRM15247.

Sources

<1>Knowles and Hadcock R N. 1953. Medieval Religious Houses. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6858]
<2>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1907. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 13. Pages 5-10. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6859]
<3>1967. MPBW EXCAVATIONS. 36. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6860]
<4>1899-1900. Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal. 5. Page 95. [Journal / SRD6861]
<5>1911. Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal. 17. Page 1. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6862]
<6>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1971-2. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 66. Pages 65-116. [Journal / SRD6863]
<7>1907. Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal. Page 5-17. [Journal / SRD6864]
<8>1895. Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal. [Journal / SRD6865]
<9>READING MUSEUM OS SU 77 SW G6. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6866]
<10>READING MUSEUM OS SU 77 SW G18. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6867]
<12>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1907. Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal. XIII. Page 5, Pages 8-11. [Journal / SRD6869]
<13>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1981-2. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 71. Pages 33-55 "Excavations at Reading Abbey 1979-1981" by A.G. Vince , P.J. Fasham and J.W. Hawkes. [Journal / SRD6870]
<14>Astill, G.G. 1978. Historic towns in Berkshire: An archaeological appraisal. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6871]
<15>Kemp B R. 1968. Reading Abbey: An Introduction to the History of the Abbey. [Bibliographic reference / SRD6872]
<16>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1975-6. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 68. Pages 29-70 "Excavations at Reading Abbey 1971-3" by C. Slade. [Journal / SRD6873]
<17>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1942. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 46. Page 105. [Journal / SRD6874]
<18>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1926. Berks, Bucks and Oxon Archaeological Journal. Volume 30. Page 73. [Journal / SRW5299]
<19>Peake, H. 1931. The Archaeology of Berkshire. Pages 128 and 223. [Bibliographic reference / SRD12746]
<20>Thames Valley Archaeological Services. 2008. New Boundary Wall, St James Church, Reading, Berkshire - An Archaeological Watching Brief. [Unpublished document / SRM13675]
<21>Museum of London Archaeology Service. 2009. Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults - Archaeological watching brief report. [Unpublished document / SRM13757]
<22>Thames Valley Archaeological Services. 2009. New Power Cable Trench, The Forbury and Abbey Street, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief. [Unpublished document / SRM13749]
<23>Museum of London Archaeology Service. 2009. Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults - Archaeological watching brief report. [Unpublished document / SRM13757]
<24>Thames Valley Archaeological Services. 2009. New Power Cable Trench, The Forbury and Abbey Street, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief. [Unpublished document / SRM13749]
<25>Jacobs. 2008. HMP Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief Report. [Unpublished document / SRM13590]
<26>Wessex Archaeology. 2005. Forbury Gardens Restoration Project, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Investigations. [Unpublished document / SRM13028]
<27>Slade, Cecil. 2001. The Town of Reading and its Abbey 1121-1997. [Bibliographic reference / SRM13070]
<28>M.D. Lobel (general editor). 1969. Historic Towns - Maps and Plans of Towns and Cities in the British Isles. [Bibliographic reference / SRM13770]
<29>Wessex Archaeology. 2005. Forbury Gardens Restoration Project, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Building Recording. [Unpublished document / SRM13027]
<30>English Heritage. 1993. Schedule entry copy for Reading Abbey: a Cluniac and Benedictine monastery and Civil War earthwork. AA 60919/1. [Scheduling record / SRM13007]
<31>Pevsner N. 1966. The Buildings of England - Berkshire. Page 19; Pages 198-199. [Bibliographic reference / SRD7728]
<32>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1971-2. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 66. "Excavation at Reading Abbey 1964-1967" by C.F. Slade. pp 65-116. [Journal / SRD6876]
<33>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1986-90. Berkshire Archaeological Journal. 73. Pages 89-103. [Journal / SRM13006]
<34>Cram Leslie. 1993. A watching brief carried out on 15 to 19 October 1993 at the Reredorter of Reading Abbey. [Unpublished document / SRM13004]
<35>Cram Leslie. 1992. Watching brief at Reading Abbey. [Unpublished document / SRM13003]
<36>Cram, Leslie. 1994. Forbury Gardens, Reading. [Unpublished document / SRM13002]
<37>English Heritage. 2009. Heritage at Risk Register 2009 South East. Page 73. [Bibliographic reference / SRM13865]
<38>Foundations Archaeology. 2006. Chestnut Walk, Reading, Berkshire. [Unpublished document / SRM13873]
<39>GSB Prospection Ltd. 2001. Geophysical Survey Report 2001/30 St Mary's Abbey, Forbury Gardens, Reading. [Unpublished document / SRM14297]
<40>Scott Wilson. 2001. Forbury Gardens and Abbey Ruins, Reading - Scheduled Ancient Monument Consent Application. [Unpublished document / SRM14298]
<41>English Heritage. 2012. Heritage at Risk Register 2012 South East. Page 79. [English Heritage National Inventory / SRM14455]
<42>English Heritage. 2013. Heritage at Risk Register 2013 South East. Page 73. [English Heritage National Inventory / SRM14638]
<43>Historic England. 2015. Heritage at Risk Register 2015. [Historic England National Inventory / SRM15047]
<44>Sir Henry Englefield. 1779. General Plan of the ruins of Reading Abbey. [Cartographic materials / SRM14326]
<45>Foundations Archaeology. 2013. Reading Abbey Gate, Reading, Berkshire - Archaeological Watching Brief. [Unpublished document / SRM14617]
<46>Foundations Archaeology. 2011. New Fencing at Reading Abbey Ruins, Reading, Berkshire NGR: SU72007353 - Archaeological Watching Brief. [Unpublished document / SRM14207]
<47>Thames Valley Archaeological Services. 2015. New Statue Base, Forbury Gardens, Abbot's Walk, Reading , Berkshire. [Unpublished document / SRM15165]
<48>Reading Borough Council. 2015. Archaeological Survey Report on the Ruins of Reading Abbey for Reading Borough Council. [Unpublished document / SRM15182]
<49>Reading Museum. 1976. REDMG: 2016.50.A1. [Excavation archive / SRM15191]
<50>Purcell. 2014. HMP Reading - Archaeological Desk Based Assessment. [Unpublished document / SRM15246]
<51>Purcell. 2014. HMP Reading Historic Building Assessment. [Unpublished document / SRM15247]

Designations

  • Scheduled Monument 1007932: Reading Abbey: a Cluniac and Benedictine monastery and Civil War earthwork.
  • Listed Building (I) 1113477: READING ABBEY RUINS

Associated Events:

ERD71Abbey Mill House & Forbury Vaults, Reading, Berkshire
ERM1036Chestnut Walk, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: CWR 06)
ERM1237Excavation at Reading Abbey - Abbey Mill
ERM1238Excavation at Reading Abbey - Cloister Area
ERM1239Excavation at Reading Abbey - Refectory Wall
ERM1240Excavation at Reading Abbey - east end of Abbey Church
ERM1241Site of Reading Abbey Stables
ERM1242Reading Abbey 1979
ERM1243Excavations at Reading Abbey 1981 (Ref: W12)
ERM1244Excavations at Reading Abbey 1985-86
ERM1246New Fencing at Reading Abbey Ruins, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: ARR10)
ERM1298St Mary's Abbey, Forbury Gardens, Reading
ERM1299Forbury Gardens and Abbey Ruins, Reading
ERM1511Reading Abbey Gate, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: RAG13)
ERM228Forbury Gardens and Abbey Ruins, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: FGR 03/118)
ERM232Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults, Abbey Square, Reading (Ref: BR-ABB02)
ERM400Forbury Gardens, Reading
ERM401Reading Abbey
ERM402The Reredorter of Reading Abbey
ERM410Forbury Gardens Restoration Project, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: 56410.02)
ERM412Forbury Gardens Restoration Project, Reading, Berkshire
ERM724Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults - Condition Survey on Reading Abbey Mill Arch (Ref: BR-ABB02)
ERM841HMP Reading, Berkshire (Ref: HMPRE07)
ERM890New Boundary Wall, St James Church, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: JCW08/107)
ERM922New Power Cable Trench, The Forbury and Abbey Street, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: FCT 09/05)
ERM930Abbey Mill House and Forbury Vaults (Ref: BR-ABB02)
ERM159233 Kings Road, Reading
ERM1844New Statue Base, Forbury Gardens, Abbot's Walk, Reading, Berkshire (Ref: FGR15/75)
ERM1859Archaeological Survey on the Ruins of Reading Abbey
ERM1866Forbury Gardens, Reading
ERM1911HM Prison Reading - Archaeological Assessment (Ref: BK/tro/23456)
ERM1912HM Prison Reading - Historic Building Assessment (Ref: KB/lkc/01.23456)

Associated Monuments

MRD1390Apsidal chapel - Abbey Church, Reading Abbey, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD1391Building - Abbey Stables at Reading Library, Reading (Monument)
MRD6364Burials north of St James' Church, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRM17553Eight medieval encaustic tiles from Reading Abbey, Berkshire (Find Spot)
MRD1401Hard area at Reading Abbey Wharf, Reading (Monument)
MRD1379Inner Abbey wall - Reading Abbey (Monument)
MRD1377Medieval pavement at Abbey Waterfront, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD7108Medieval wall - 26 The Forbury, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD6365Plummery wall on northern side of Forbury Road, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD6341Possible medieval walls - Reading Assize Court, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD7305Post-medieval features at 21-23 Valpy Street, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD1383Precinct Wall - Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15570Reading Abbey - Bakehouse (Monument)
MRD15570Reading Abbey - Bakehouse (Monument)
MRD15562Reading Abbey - Chapter House (Monument)
MRD15562Reading Abbey - Chapter House (Monument)
MRM15878Reading Abbey - Cloister Arch (Monument)
MRM15878Reading Abbey - Cloister Arch (Monument)
MRD15560Reading Abbey - Cloisters (Monument)
MRD15560Reading Abbey - Cloisters (Monument)
MRM15879Reading Abbey - Dormitory (Monument)
MRM15879Reading Abbey - Dormitory (Monument)
MRD15571Reading Abbey - Dovecote (Monument)
MRD15571Reading Abbey - Dovecote (Monument)
MRD15563Reading Abbey - Hospitium (Monument)
MRD15563Reading Abbey - Hospitium (Monument)
MRD15566Reading Abbey - Inner Gate (Monument)
MRD15566Reading Abbey - Inner Gate (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15572Reading Abbey - Refectory (Monument)
MRD15572Reading Abbey - Refectory (Monument)
MRD15561Reading Abbey - Treasury (Monument)
MRD15561Reading Abbey - Treasury (Monument)
MRD15552Reading Abbey Church (Monument)
MRD15552Reading Abbey Church (Monument)
MRD1376Reading Abbey Gateway (Listed Building)
MRD1375Reading Abbey Mill Arch and wall, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD1380Refectory wall - Reading Abbey (Monument)
MRD1389Refectory wall - Reading Abbey (Monument)
MRD1378Saxon or Medieval cemetery at Reading Abbey site, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD15564St Laurence Church, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD15564St Laurence Church, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD1398St Laurence's and hospitium - Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD1400The Conduit - Highgrove Street, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD4249The Holy Brook - Abbey Stables, Reading Abbey (Monument)
MRD1399The Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD1381Tile Cloister walks - Reading Abbey (Monument)
MRD3977Watercourse at Abbey Gardens III (Abbey Gate), Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15569Reading Abbey - Abbot's House and guest apartments (Monument)
MRD15570Reading Abbey - Bakehouse (Monument)
MRD15570Reading Abbey - Bakehouse (Monument)
MRD15562Reading Abbey - Chapter House (Monument)
MRD15562Reading Abbey - Chapter House (Monument)
MRM15878Reading Abbey - Cloister Arch (Monument)
MRM15878Reading Abbey - Cloister Arch (Monument)
MRD15560Reading Abbey - Cloisters (Monument)
MRD15560Reading Abbey - Cloisters (Monument)
MRM15879Reading Abbey - Dormitory (Monument)
MRM15879Reading Abbey - Dormitory (Monument)
MRD15571Reading Abbey - Dovecote (Monument)
MRD15571Reading Abbey - Dovecote (Monument)
MRD15563Reading Abbey - Hospitium (Monument)
MRD15563Reading Abbey - Hospitium (Monument)
MRD15566Reading Abbey - Inner Gate (Monument)
MRD15566Reading Abbey - Inner Gate (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15567Reading Abbey - kitchen (Monument)
MRD15572Reading Abbey - Refectory (Monument)
MRD15572Reading Abbey - Refectory (Monument)
MRD15561Reading Abbey - Treasury (Monument)
MRD15561Reading Abbey - Treasury (Monument)
MRD15552Reading Abbey Church (Monument)
MRD15552Reading Abbey Church (Monument)
MRD15564St Laurence Church, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)
MRD15564St Laurence Church, Reading, Berkshire (Monument)

Associated Finds:

  • None