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HER Number (PRN):01176
Name:Ludlow Castle
Type of Record:Monument
Protected Status:Conservation Area: Ludlow
Listed Building (I) 1291698: THE CASTLE
Scheduled Monument 1004778: Ludlow Castle

Monument Types

  • CASTLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1540 AD)

Summary

Scheduled Monument and Grade I Listed Building: Ludlow Castle is one of the great border fortresses, and its substantial ruins (dating from the 11th to the 16th century) still dominate the town. The Castle was a major seat of power in the Marches for 600 years, initially as a military base and subsequently as the administrative capital of Wales and the Marches (a role which continued until the late 17th century).

Parish:Ludlow, South Shropshire, Shropshire
Map Sheet:SO57SW
Grid Reference:SO 509 746

Related records

06174Related to: Excavation at Old Pastry, Inner Bailey, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06175Related to: Excavation in Great Tower, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06113Related to: Porters Lodge and Prison, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06177Related to: Ruins of Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06116Related to: Salvage recording within inner bailey, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06115Related to: SEsection of curtain wall, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06114Related to: Solar block and north-west tower, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06168Related to: St Mary Magdelene's chapel, Ludlow Castle (Monument)
06169Related to: St Peter's chapel, Ludlow Castle (Monument)

Associated Finds

  • FSA220 - AMPULLA (15th century - 1400 AD to 1499 AD)

Associated Events

  • ESA1588 - 1988 field observation by English Heritage
  • ESA1589 - 1967 field observation by the Ordnance Survey
  • ESA1590 - 1987 field observation by English Heritage
  • ESA1591 - 1990 WB on emergency scaffolding of S curtain wall, following collapse at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA1592 - 1990 WB on works to collapsed SE curtain wall at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA1593 - 1991 Survey and analysis of the solar block at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA1594 - 1992 Excavations at Porter's Lodge, Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA1595 - 1993 WB on display panel foundations at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA1596 - 1993 Excavation to W of outer bailey gateway at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA4715 - 2000 WB on Floodlighting Scheme at Ludlow Castle by Marches Archaeology
  • ESA4764 - 2001 DBA of Castle House, Ludlow Castle by Marches Archaeology
  • ESA5600 - 1989-1990 Survey of crenellations on SE section of curtain wall at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA5601 - 1990 Excavations in association with remedial landscaping at Ludlow Castle by CHAU
  • ESA5876 - 2004 WB on provision of gate into Castle House grounds, Ludlow Castle by Marches Archaeology
  • ESA6116 - 2007 geophysical survey of Ludlow Castle
  • ESA6315 - 2002 DBA at Castle House, Ludlow, by Ron Shoesmith

Description

Founded c 1090, when Keep, inner bailey and towers were built. Late C12 extension to form outer bailey with outer gate and towers. Later buildings within the outer bailey. Defended on N & W by steep slopes and on E & S by two ditches, one between the two baileys and one between the bailey and the town. Against the N wall of the inner bailey is a fine range of domestic buildings of the C13 and early C14. They include hall, great chamber, and a tower. The living rooms to the east of the Great chamber were rebuilt in the C16. In the C13 a special court for the keep was formed. The Keep was begun in 1090 but not finished until early C12. The Chapel of St Mary Magdalene is one of the few round churches in this country. It dates mainly from the early C12, and consisted originally of a round nave and a chancel with an eastern apse; the chancel has been destroyed, but the nave remains <1a>

[LB desc to be scanned in] Formerly the seat of the Lords President of the Marches. Coronation of Edward V here in 1483. Prince Arthur died here in 1502. Moulded fireplaces in the domestic block. Decorated and Elizabethan fenestration in Great Hall and State Apartments. Chapel has richly carved chevron arches and wall arcades with enriched capitals <3>

The British Museum Catalogue includes a lead ampulla, English C15, found before 1891 <12>

Lengthy description by Pevsner <13>

SMCs and Consultation Responses, 1985-1993 <39><40><41><42><43><44><45><46>

In late 1989 CHAU were commissioned to survey the crenellations of the SE sections of the curtain wall, prior to consolidation work. The first phase of the survey was completed by December 1989. In February 1990 15m of the wall collapsed. A watching brief was carried out on the trenches that had to be dug for the urgent shoring that was then necessary. A further watching brief took place on the removal of debris etc, so that a realistic rebuilding could take place <51><52><54>

In Spring 1990 CHAU carried out excavations for the regrading of the points of access to the castle for disabled visitors <53>

In May 1991 the Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies of the University of York made photogrammetric plots of the so called Solar Block as part of the phase III programme of repairs and renovation of the castle. CHAU was commissioned to add details to these plots, and to provide a structural and architectural assessment of this part of the castle and accurate moulding profiles of the more significant features. <55><56>

In September 1992 CHAU carried out an evaluation excavation within the Porter's Lodge <57>

In May 1993 CHAU carried out a watching brief during the erection of 7 display panels in the grounds of the castle <58>

In Summer 1993 CHAU carried out excavations for a service trench as a follow up to their evaluation of the Porter's Lodge area of the castle <59>

Evaluated for MPP in 1990-1, as one of less than 10 Enclosure Castles <61>

The castle was sketched from the west in 1864; the inner bailey and its various buildings were also shown as a bird's eye view (p52-53). Stukeley's plan of the castle (c1721) is the earliest plan of the castle and identifies various buildings, as well as showing all the buildings at that period. It shows that the northern part of the outer bailey was a bowling green and an enclosed orchard (p60). A series of detailed elevations of the buildings in the inner bailey were carried out in 1765 and show the condition of buildings at that date (p70) <62>

CMHTS Comment: Identiifed as component of Medieval town. Contains following remains separately identified: solar block [PRN SA 06114]; excavated prison [PRN SA 06113]; chapel of St Mary Magdalene [PRN SA 06168]; St Peter's Chapel [PRN SA 06169]; recorded section of outer bailey curtain wall [PRN SA 06115]; small-scale excavations in inner bailey [PRN SA 06116]; great tower [PRN SA 06175] and kitchen [PRN SA 06174]; and chapel [PRN SA 06168] and other ruins [PRN SA 06177]. The component is defined to include ditch external to outer bailey, and scarping of hillside to north and west of castle <63>
CMHTS Report <64>

It was noted in 1977 that the original entrance had been blocked <68>

In Feb 2000, a scheme of works to improve the floodlighting of the inner bailey involved the digging of a trench through an area not previously disturbed. This work was monitored archaeologically and evidence of a ramp leading to the site of the drawbridge was discovered. Subsequently the level of the outer bailey was raised disguising the ramp. Report also includes a history of Ludlow Castle <69>

The castle was founded in the late 11th century, as a major fortress on the frontier with Wales, and was used as the base for campaigns in Wales and the Marches in the 12th and 13th centuries. The town grew up in its shadow. After the conquest of Wales the strategic importance of the castle declined. However, it was the base of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, during the Wars of the Roses and in 1473 the Council of the March of Wales was based at the castle. This latter became a provincial court in 1501 and a seat of regional government for Wales, Herefordshire and Shropshire in 1534 <70>

Desk Based Assessment carried out in 2001 on Castle House due to proposed alterations to Ludlow Castle. The building stands to the north of the gateway, into the outer court of Ludlow castle. Castle house was built in a series of campaigns probably starting with the construction of a barracks in the 16th century, but not attaining its final form until around the turn of the 20th century. <71>

A 2004 WB on the insertion of a gate into Castle House grounds found no archaeological features <72>

In 2007 a geophysical survey was carried out of large areas of the castle. Traces of known features such as the old pantry and St Mary Magdalene Chapel were recorded, but the results also suggested additional structures not previously noted both within the inner bailey and beyond it in the outer bailey <73>
On 29/09/2014 the Scehduling was revised, so that a Description and Resason for Designation existed for the first time. The Scheduled Area was extended to the East and South. <76>

Sources

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[40]SSA20135 - Scheduled Monument Consent notification: Department of the Environment (DoE). 1985-Nov-01. Scheduled Monument Consent for repairs and improvements to Castle House Flats. Salop 7.
[41]SSA20136 - Scheduled Monument Consent notification: Department of the Environment (DoE). 1988-Dec-15. Scheduled Monument Consent for repairs and consolidation works. Salop 7.
[42]SSA20137 - Scheduled Monument Consent notification: Department of the Environment (DoE). 1985-Sep-13. Scheduled Monument Consent for works to spiral staircase. Salop 7.
[43]SSA20138 - Scheduled Monument Consent notification: Department of the Environment (DoE). 1986-Jan-08. Scheduled Monument Consent for repairs and improvements to Castle House Flats. Salop 7.
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[65]SSA20142 - Scheduled Monument Consent notification: Department of National Heritage (DNH). 1994-Apr-25. Scheduled Monument Consent for security gate installation. Salop 7.
[66]SSA20143 - Scheduled Monument Consent notification: Department of National Heritage (DNH). 1994-Nov-29. Scheduled Monument Consent for temporary hut etc. Salop 7.
[67]SSA20141 - Planning archive: Shropshire County Council. 1993. Consultation Response, 1993. DC proforma PF3.
[68]SSA20144 - VERBAL COMMUNICATION: Burrow Ian. 1977. Observation, 20/10/1977. SMR record card. 01176. Written on.
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[75]SSA4736 - Photograph: Shone, Ron. 1970-Jun. 3 Photgraphs of the Curtain Wall, Ludlow Castle. Black and white. 35mm.
[76]SSA27152 - Statutory designation documentation: English Heritage (Designation). 2014-Sep-29. Notification Report: Ludlow Castle Case Number 1409514.
Date Last Edited:Sep 29 2014 3:05PM