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Rothwell Castle/Manor House
County: West Yorks
District: Leeds
Parish: -
Monument Number: ( 1977 )
Site of Rothwell Castle, a fortified Manor House probably built by Ilbert de Lacey in the 11th century. Centre of extensive manorial complex. Remains on the site include a single upstanding fragment of wall, possibly of early- to mid-13th century date; a series of earthworks which may represent ancillary buildings and possibly gardens belonging to the Manor House; a very wet area which may prove to be the site of one of the medieval fishponds. The original Manor House having fallen into disrepair, a second house was built by the tenant under the conditions of the lease of 1487. This building was extensively rebuilt in the 16th and 17th centuries. A single bay of the original timber-framed house survived until the structure was demolished as unsafe, along with a neighbouring 18th-century barn, in 1977. The remnant of timber framing was dismantled and stored by the WYAS. The demolished structures were omitted from the original scheduling, and the area which they covered needs to be brought under schedule. ................. In 1974 the Wakefield Historical Society Research Group led by K.S. Bartlett and DJH Michelmore carried out a survey of the manor house and produced drawings and plans. The house is H-plan, consisting of a late 15th century centre wing of one bay, a 17th century west wing of stone and timber gables, stone mullions and a large fireplace, with an outshot on the north gable which also extends on the north of the centre wing. The east wing is 18th century, or brick, with a cellar. Mortices on the outside faces of the eastern truss of the centre wing suggest that there had been an earlier timber framed east wing (YAJ 1975 p8). ................. The central timber-framed bay of this building was dismantled by D.J.H. Michelmore for WYAs. This was the west end of the house, built as one of the conditions of the 1487 lease. The accommodation consisted of a ground floor chamber with a door in its south front, originally with a timbre canopy over. A stair against the west gable originally gave access to the upper chamber which was lit by an oriel window in its southern front which also had decorative diagonal studding and a flat window to the north. The plan is unusual and suggests a separate lodging. A tow bay cross wing had been built against the west gable of the 1487 building; this was of stone except where it adjoined the earlier timber framed bay and apart from timber framed gables. The rest of the 1487 house was probably destroyed by a brick cross wing built in the late 18th century. This incorporated a rafter from a scissor-braced roof which may have bene part of an earlier stone manor house probably demolished din 1487 (Medieval Archaeology 1978 vol 22 p184). .................... In 2018 Leeds City Council suggested that there are plans to re-erect a group of historic timber framed buildings that have been stored since their demolition in the 1970s and 1980s, including the 15th century timber framed bay pf Rothwell manor House which was dismantled in 1977 (Leeds City Council, 2018 Heritage Newsletter).

Sources
List
Historic England, 2018. 'Heritage at Risk Register 2018'
Report
Hillam, J., Sheffield University, 1982. Dendrochronology report
Publication
Wrathmell, S., (ed) ASWYAS, 2003. 'Rothwell: The Medieval Manor and Manorial Mills'
Publication
Medieval Archaeology, 1978. 'Medieval Britain in 1977' vol 22 p184
Desc.text
Leeds City Council, 2018. Heritage Newsletter
Desc.text
Survey of the Honour of Pontefract, 1628. p53
Publication
Lister, John, 1895. Chapter House Records; Bradford Antiquary, vol. II, 1895.
List
Historic England, 2015. 'Heritage at Risk Register 2015: Yorkshire' p.101
Desc.text
Walker, J., 1981. AM12
AP
NMR 20377 (27/Oct/2005)
List
English Heritage. 2011. 'Heritage at Risk Register: Yorkshire & Humber' p.126
Publication
Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 1975. Vol 47, Archaeological Register 1974 p8
Desc.text
Bastow, M.E., 1985. AM107
List
English Heritage. 'Heritage at Risk Register 2013: Yorkshire' p.115
AP
English Heritage. 24/08/2007. NMR refs: 20668_042-047; 20663_051-052.