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Historic England Research Records

Wingfield Manor

Hob Uid: 313973
Location :
Derbyshire
Amber Valley
South Wingfield
Grid Ref : SK3743054790
Summary : The remains of a medieval great house built in the mid-15th century for Ralph, Lord Cromwell. Its upstanding remains date to four main building phases between 1439 and 1455. In its final form, it is a double courtyard great house comprising an inner court to the north and a larger outer court to the south. The buildings of the outer court were two-storeyed and provided accommodation and offices for staff. The east and west building ranges are ruinous but the former includes an upstanding gatehouse. The passage through the gatehouse is flanked on either side by a gate lodge while immediately south of the gate is an extant aisled barn with a residential upper storey thought to have been used as a dormitory for staff. A buttressed wall forms the south side of the outer court and may originally have been part of a third building range. There are no visible remains of such a range. The house was approached by a sunken track from the north east and entered through the gateway noted above. Access to the inner court was through a second gateway. This inner gateway was three-storeyed and similar in design to the outer gateway. The inner court was the site of the principal residential buildings and comprises three upstanding building ranges. The west range and south range are occupied by lodgings and include, at the south west corner, a five-storey residential tower known as the Western or High Tower. The north range also includes the great hall and Cromwell's private accommodation. Underneath the great hall is a vaulted undercroft which served as the servants hall. After Cromwell's death in 1456 the manor was sold to to the Earl of Shrewsbury and remained with that family until 1678 when it was bought by Immanuel Halton who built a house in the shell of the great hall. The site was abandoned in the 18th century though a section of the cross range was converted to a farmhouse. Some alterations were carried out during the 20th century.
More information : [Centred at SK 37435479] Wingfield Manor House [G.T.]
(In Ruins).

[SK 37485479] Chapel [G.T.] (In Ruins)
[Centred at SK 37475484] Moat [G.T.] (1)

Wingfield Manor House: Historical Description:
The building of the manor-house was begun some time between 1440-5 by Lord Cromwell. During his lifetime the reversion of the manor was sold to the 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury and, after Lord Cromwell's death, the Earl completed the house and resided there before his own death in 1460. The Shrewsburys held the manor until the death of the 7th Earl. Mary, Queen of Scots was imprisoned here in 1569 and in 1584-5. The house was besieged and damaged during the Civil War. In 1666 it was occupied by Imanuel Halton who converted the former banqueting hall into a two-storeyed dwelling. A Halton demolished much of the house in 1774. (2)

Architectural Description: The house is 416 feet long and over
256 feet wide and consisted of two courts. The outer, south court comprises the gatehouse, a large barn and the outer and inner walls of the west and east ranges respectively. The range dividing the two courts has a more or less symmetrical south front with a gateway flanked by turrets and large chimneys with a porch (?). At the west end is the Great Tower (72 feet high). The west and east ranges of the inner court are destroyed. The northern range contains the State Rooms and hall on an undercroft with a bay window at its dais end of the hall and a solar or parlour in a chamber at right angles to the hall. The range ends on the west
in a confused group of kitchen and other rooms. (3)

Earthworks
Beyond the south-east angle of the south quadrangle the ancient earthworks thrown up for defence are still visible. Around the north side and the greater part of the east side of the north quadrangle is a dry moat which is not likely to have been a defence but probably the quarry for the rough stone of the building.
(4)

Wingfield Manor is scheduled as an ancient monument. (5-18)

Published name confirmed. (19)

The ruin of Wingfield Manor House is in fair condition though trees and other vegetation are causing some damage to the masonry. It is accurately described by Authy. 3 and is mainly as shown on the plan by Auth. 15. Parts of the south-west walling of the outer court have been destroyed in erecting farm-buildings and a building on the outside of the east range of this court is obscured by a conservatory. See GPs: AO/59/172/5 - Barn from the north and AO/59/172/6 - Main gatehouse from the northeast.

The 'chapel', identified at SK 37485479 by Authy. 15, is a very
small ruined structure formed on an outer, garden wall and, is
unlikely to be the chapel. It is not orientated to the east, is extremely small and has no ecclesiastical ornament or features. The chapel, if a separate entity, presumably stood east of the
hall where other buildings have been completely destroyed but for the marks of their abutment against the hall. The farmhouse, occupied by Mr. R.W. Crichlow, is at the eastern end of the middle range. It preserves most of the original detail and has a modern north wing. The earth works surrounding the castle probably have their origin in quarrying and levelling the hill-top on which the house stands. However, centred at SK 37475467, is a crescentic bank forming an outlying defence or barbican to the main gateway. It is placed on an artificial platform of spread earth. If this is an earthern defence then it suggests that the other earthworks, though originating in the preparation of the building-site, were utilized as a supplementary defence. The southern bank has been destroyed in recent years but on the west is a large, simple slope formed by levelling. On the north and northeast an irregular moat-like quarry has an earthern bank on its outer lip. On the east, tracks and other mutilations obscure any connection between the earthen barbican and northern earthworks. See GPs AO/59/172/7 -
Earthern barbican from the north - and AO/59/172/8 - Quarry and outer bank from the northwest. A 25" AM Survey has been made of the Manor House and associated earthworks. At the time of field investigation, negotiations by the M.O.W. to take over guardianship of the ruins had broken down and an order to acquire compulsory guardianship is mooted. (20)

Published survey (25" 1962) correct. Authority 20 correct. The
site is now in the guardianship of the M.O.W. (21)

I The ruins of South Wingfield Manor House
I The dwellinghouse, Wingfield manor
I Barn at Wingfield Manor

Note: Ruins included in Interim list. The dwellinghouse
is spot listed.

Circa. 1440. Built for Ralph Lord Cromwell. Famous example of a large late mediaeval house with towers and other features. Fine architectural details and a prominent feature of the landscape. The building has been falling into ruins since the Civil Wars
and is now getting into very bad order. The two storey contemporary barn is now suffering very badly as a result of the
breaking away of the stone roofing slabs and needs urgent
attention. A.M. (unoccupied parts)

4/94
25-9-51 The ruins of South Wingfield Manor House incorporating Manor Farmhouse,
and an aisled outbuilding to the south
(formerly listed as the ruins of
South Wingfield Manor House, the
dwelling house, Wingfield Manor, and
barn at Wingfield Manor
I

Fortified medieval manor house. Built 1439-53, by Ralph, Lord Cromwell, who was Lord Treasurer between 1433 and 1443. Massive ashlar and rubble gritstone, with some tiled roofs. Double courtyard plan, with outer entrance gateways to south east corner of the south courtyard, and offices and quarters for the househould in the south, east and west ranges. To the north, a cross range dividing inner and outer courtyards, with central
gateway flanked by superior lodgings with hearths. The inner
courtyard had further guest lodgings with hearths and garderobes in the west range, which included the 72ft high tower at the south end. The north range comprised a kitchen court at the west end, with kitchens and service rooms, below private apartments and a great chamber. From the kitchens, a passage led to the screens passage of the Great Hall, with its gabled entrance porch, oriel window at the dais end, and a vaulted undercroft. If built, the east range and a parlour to the Great Hall no longer survive. Save for the undercroft, the site is ruinous, but a roofed structure survives in each courtyard. North courtyard, south side: a farmhouse, east of the inner gateway, mid C18, with stone slated and pantiled roofs. South elevation with two massive projecting stacks, formerly serving the lodgings, one with C19 diagonal ashlar chimney, the second to the east smaller, and with a C19 plain cap. Generally with C20 windows, in old surrounds, one with a flush mullion to the east end. C20 infill between entrance tower and projecting stack to west below windows with chamfered and quoined surrounds. Continuous plinth, matching range to west of gateway. Gabled single storey porch, uncoped, with four centred arched head to entrance doorway, and C20 glazed door. Long slated catslide roof to rear elevation, incorporating traceried 2-light window. Attached three storeyed wing to east end with gable stack, and pantiled roof with stone slated eaves. South range, east end: aisled outbuilding thought to be the earliest building in the complex, providing workspace and accommodation for labourers. Coursed rubble gritstone, with ashlar dressings, coped east gable and a stone slated roof. Two storeys, five bays, with four centred arched doorway with quoined surround to the centre bay, the bays delineated by shallow stepped buttresses. Two 2-light chamfer mullioned windows, one to each floor. Two smaller openings, and the west bay rebuilt, with a quoined and chamfered surround to a first floor opening above a slit window. Interior: aisle arcades support a double purlin roof, the aisle post standing on 1 metre high stone paids, and with jowels to north and south faces to carry transverse floor beams and spurs to walls. Diminutive curved braces to transverse beams and tie beams. Arcade plates braced longitudinally with massive curved braces. Through purlins have curved wind braces, and support collar and tie beam trusses, rising from arcade plate. Coupled rafter roof. At the east end, hearths which are related to those in the adjoining gatehouse. In front of this, a shallow single bay floor with short posts and wall posts which are angle braced. History: after Cromwell's death, the manor was sold to the Earl of Shrewsbury and remained in the ownership of that family, during which time, Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned there. After the Restoration the astronomer, Immanuel Halton created a new house in the shell of the Great Hall. Scheduled Ancient Monument now in Guardianship. A Emery and M Binney, 'Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire, I & II'. Country Life 1982. (22-23)

SK 374547 South Wingfield Manor. Excavations in advance of consolidation were constructed on two areas,the sub-floor levels of the basement below the solar,and the foundations of the south wall of the solar/kitchen complex. The latter area showed a sequence of eight constructional phases, the most significant of which were those of the present Manor, and of a hitherto undetected pre-manor complex of stone buildings.This pre-manor structure seems to be of 14th century date, and include a basement room, a kitchen (?) hearth and well housing, all of which lie askew to the alignment of the 15th century Manor. (24)

Excavation of pre-manor structures uncovered a bastion and a substantial stone wall indicating that the earliest phase at South
Wingfield may have been fortified. (25)

Additional references. (26-27)

The remains of a medieval great house built in the mid-15th century for Ralph, Lord Cromwell. Its upstanding remains date to four main building phases between 1439 and 1455. In its final form, it is a double courtyard great house comprising an inner court to the north and a larger outer court to the south. The buildings of the outer court were two-storeyed and provided accommodation and offices for staff. The east and west building ranges are ruinous but the former includes an upstanding gatehouse. The passage through the gatehouse is flanked on either side by a gate lodge while immediately south of the gate is an extant aisled barn with a residential upper storey thought to have been used as a dormitory for staff. A buttressed wall forms the south side of the outer court and may originally have been part of a third building range. There are no visible remains of such a range. The house was approached by a sunken track from the north east and entered through the gateway noted above. Access to the inner court was through a second gateway. This inner gateway was three-storeyed and similar in design to the outer gateway. The inner court was the site of the principal residential buildings and comprises three upstanding building ranges. The west range and south range are occupied by lodgings and include, at the south west corner, a five-storey residential tower known as the Western or High Tower. The north range also includes the great hall and Cromwell's private accommodation. Underneath the great hall is a vaulted undercroft which served as the servants hall. After Cromwell's death in 1456 the manor was sold to to the Earl of Shrewsbury and remained with that family until 1678 when it was bought by Immanuel Halton who built a house in the shell of the great hall. The site was abandoned in the 18th century though a section of the cross range was converted to a farmhouse and is still lived in today by the present owners of the manor. (28)

Listed by Cathcart King. (29)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1921
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 65-78
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 8 (1886)
Source Number : 11
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Blore T. 1793. History of South Wingfield
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Edmunds W. 1904. Wingfield Manor
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : Some account of domestic architecture in England, from Richard II to Henry VIII. Part II
Source details :
Page(s) : 222-4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 14
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 498-500
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 42 (1885)
Source Number : 15
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 369-70
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 71 (1914)
Source Number : 16
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details :
Page(s) : 367-74
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 7 (1852)
Source Number : 17
Source : Journal of the British Archaeological Association
Source details :
Page(s) : 146-52, 172-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 10
Source Number : 18
Source : Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 37-41
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 68 (1948)
Source Number : 19
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 WCW 28-JUL-59
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 19a
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : Oral: Messrs. SB and RW Crichlow, Owners.
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Derbyshire
Source details :
Page(s) : 217-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 20
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 WCW 31-JUL-59
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 21
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F3 BHS 10-JUN-66
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 22
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Provisional List Belper Rural District, June 1962
Page(s) : 24
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 23
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Amber Valley, 14-AUG-1985
Page(s) : 48
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 461
Source Number : 24
Source : East Midland Archaeological bulletin
Source details :
Page(s) : 6
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 13 (1979-82)
Source Number : 25
Source : Medieval archaeology : journal of the Society for Medieval Archaeology
Source details :
Page(s) : 216
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 25 (1981)
Source Number : 26
Source : Ralph, Lord Cromwell's manor at Wingfield (1439-c1450): its construction, design and influence
Source details :
Page(s) : 276-339
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 142
Source Number : 27
Source : The construction of the manor at South Wingfield, Derbyshire
Source details :
Page(s) : 417-38
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 28
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 24-Oct-97
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 29
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 111
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ferrey EB. 1870. South Wingfield Manor
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ministry of Works. 1958. Ancient Monuments in England and Wales
Page(s) : 26
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Country Life
Source details : 17-Jul-15
Page(s) : 90-7
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Tipping HA. 1921. English Homes Period I
Page(s) : 303-312
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 8
Source : The Victoria history of the county of Derby, volume one
Source details :
Page(s) : 391-2
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : The growth of the English house : a short history of its architectural development from 1100 to 1800
Source details :
Page(s) : 68-78
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Thompson AH. 1912. Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages
Page(s) : 345-52
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Pre 1440
Monument End Date : 1440
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Wall, Bastion
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 1439 to 1455
Monument End Date : 1455
Monument Start Date : 1439
Monument Type : Fortified Manor House, Great House, Courtyard House, Office, Servants Hall, Undercroft, Tower, Great Hall, Aisled Barn, Dormitory, Gate Lodge, Service Wing, Gatehouse
Evidence : Ruined Building, Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Altered by 1766
Monument End Date : 1766
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Farmhouse
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Partly demolished 1774
Monument End Date : 1774
Monument Start Date : 1774
Monument Type : Fortified Manor House, Farmhouse
Evidence : Extant Building, Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : 20th Century
Display Date : Modern alterations
Monument End Date : 1998
Monument Start Date : 1901
Monument Type : Manor House
Evidence : Extant Building, Ruined Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : DR 32
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 27227
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 94676
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 78742
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 74
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1014829
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SK 35 SE 10
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SK 35 NW 36
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1959-07-28
End Date : 1959-07-28
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SK 35 NW 36
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1959-07-31
End Date : 1959-07-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SK 35 NW 36
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1966-06-10
End Date : 1966-06-10
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH WINGFIELD MANOR
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1980-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINGFIELD MANOR HOUSE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH WINGFIELD MANOR
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINGFIELD MANOR
Activity type : THEMATIC SURVEY
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31