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Historic England Research Records

Camulodunum

Hob Uid: 383744
Location :
Essex
Colchester
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : TL9970025340
Summary : The Roman walled town of Colchester. Prior to the foundation of the legionary fortress the site of the Iron Age settlement was three miles south-west of the current city at Gosbecks. The legionary fortress located under the western half of the current town was built for the twentieth legion following the conquest in AD 43. Soon after this the Legion was removed and the settlement became a colony for retired veterans (Colonia Victricensis, meaning 'City of Victory'). As the Colonia expanded the defences appear to have been levelled and attention was diverted towards the construction of public buildings, including the temple of Claudius. The Colony had no defences and was left vulnerable to attack in AD 60/61 when it was burned to the ground by the local native tribes led by Boudicca.By the second century several grand town houses were built reflecting the emergence of wealthy inhabitants. These were well-appointed with mosaics, painted walls, tiled roofs, water supplies, and drainage systems.At some point between AD 150 and AD 200, the defences were again strengthened with the addition of an earthen rampart behind the wall; and around AD 275 the town ditch was widened. These changes were contemporary with a decline of the suburbs. Many areas within the walls became cultivation plots and an agricultural focus seems to have developed, in particular an aisled barn dating to circa 275-325 was excavated at Culver Street. A Christian community was established during the fourth-century, and a church was situated at Butt Road. There is however, little evidence for very late occupation in Colchester after the end of Roman rule, and it is likely that although it continued to be an administrative centre and refuge in times of unrest, the majority of the population were rural and engaged in agricultural activities outside the walls.
More information : (TL 997253) The Colonia Victresensis of Camulodunum was established on the hill to the east of the earlier settlement (TL 92 NE 5) in 49 AD. It was laid out on a formal street plan (qv) and after sacking by Boudicca in 61 AD, was rebuilt on the same plan. At this time a monumental arch was built to mark the western limits of the original Colonia. When the walls were built mid 2nd century, they were taken up to the arch which was then redeveloped as the Balkerne Gate. (TL 92 NE 41). More than five thousand coins including hoards have been found in and around Colchester. (1-3)

General accounts of the Roman fortress, town visible remains, excavations and finds. (4-6)

The walled town of Colchester is situated on a spur of land overlooking the River Colne. Prior to the foundation of the legionary fortress the site of the current town appears to have been unoccupied, the Iron Age settlement was three miles south-west of the current city at Gosbecks. There an Iron Age farmstead covered approximately 10 miles, and was surrounded by rivers on two sides, with a complicated system of dykes on its open western end. The Romans placed their settlement at Colchester to take advantage of the commanding view and access to the Colne waterway.

The legionary fortress located under the western half of the current town was built for the twentieth legion following the conquest in AD 43. Soon after this the Legion was removed and the settlement became a colony for retired veterans (Colonia Victricensis, meaning 'City of Victory'). As the Colonia expanded the defences appear to have been levelled and attention was diverted towards the construction of public buildings, including the temple of Claudius in an annexe built to the east of the original fortress. The Colony had no defences and was left vulnerable to attack in AD 60/61 when it was burned to the ground by the local native tribes (the Iceni and Trinovantes), led by Boudicca. This event appears to have led to the construction of the town wall making it the first of its kind in Britain. The wall appears to have been built over a number of years between AD 65 and AD 80.

By the second century several grand town houses were built reflecting the emergence of wealthy inhabitants. These were well-appointed with mosaics, painted walls, tiled roofs, water supplies, and drainage systems.


The town wall originally formed a circuit of some 1.45 miles, being 2,800m long and 2.4m thick. It incorporated six gates and between 12 and 24 towers, with a V shaped ditch dug along the foot of the wall to improve its defensive capabilities. The town's main entrance from the west had been a triumphal arch built to celebrate the Claudian conquest of Britain, this was incorporated into the walls with the addition of a footway and a bastion on both sides to form what is now known as the Balkerne Gate. The gate was later blocked up, possibly because it was considered a defensive weak spot. At some point between AD 150 and AD 200, the defences were again strengthened with the addition of an earthen rampart behind the wall; and around AD 275 the town ditch was widened from a V-shape to a U-shape. These changes were contemporary with a decline of the suburbs, with houses being demolished and many areas becoming dumps or for quarrying activity, or simply reverting to open land. Many areas within the walls became cultivation plots and an agricultural focus seems to have developed, in particular an aisled barn dating to circa 275-325 at Culver Street. This coincides with the building of the Saxon Shore forts, one of which (Othona) would have provided protection for the town. A Christian community was established during the fourth-century, and a church was situated at Butt Road. There is however, little evidence for very late occupation in Colchester after the end of Roman rule, and it is likely that although it continued to be an administrative centre and refuge in times of unrest, the majority of the population were rural and engaged in agricultural activities outside the walls. (7)

Additional references. (8-27)


Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source :
Source details : Hull M R. 1958. Roman Colchester XXV pp275-8
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Source Number : 11
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Source details : 'Roman pottery from excavations in Colchester, 1971-86', by R P Symonds and S Wade. 1999.
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Vol(s) : Aug-77
Source Number : 5
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Source details : Clarke D T D. and Davies C M R 1980 Roman Colchester plans etc
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Defences strengthened
Monument End Date : 275
Monument Start Date : 150
Monument Type : Town, Town Wall, Rampart, Town Ditch
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Agricultural focus
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 275
Monument Type : Town, Barn, Church
Evidence :
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Fortress from 44 AD
Monument End Date : 49
Monument Start Date : 44
Monument Type : Legionary Fortress
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Colonia
Monument End Date : 60
Monument Start Date : 45
Monument Type : Colonia, Insula, Temple
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Destroyed in Boudiccan revolt
Monument End Date : 61
Monument Start Date : 60
Monument Type : Colonia
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Town rebuilt
Monument End Date : 100
Monument Start Date : 62
Monument Type : Town, Town Wall
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Early Medieval
Display Date : Early Medieval
Monument End Date : 1066
Monument Start Date : 410
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 13318
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 13304
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 1,331,113,336
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 13250
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 12545
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 13330
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 13324
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Essex)
External Cross Reference Number : 13321
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TL 92 NE 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

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Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2013-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2013-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities :
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31