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Historic England Research Records

Londinium

Hob Uid: 405373
Location :
Greater London Authority
City and County of the City of London
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : TQ3200081000
Summary : Roman London. London was established as a commercial centre by the time of the Boudiccan revolt. The name Londinium first appears at that time in connection with its destruction by fire. Evidence for the fire has been found on a number of sites, in the form of a layer of ash one foot thick. The buildings at that time were mainly of wattle and daub, but there had been a planned development of more permanent buildings dated AD 44-50, with a reconstruction dated AD 50-60, on the site of the forum. The first forum and basilica is dated mid-Flavian (AD 69-96), the final forum being not earlier than Hadrian (AD 117-138). A second major conflagration, not connected with any known historical event, took place in the early second century. Other important buildings, all of the second century include the governor's palace, the mithraic temple, the fort and bath houses. The city wall was probably built in the late second century and certainly before AD 225, but the riverside wall is third century. The three main cemeteries are at Aldgate, Bishopgate and Newgate inncluding burials north of St Pauls which give some idea of the extent of the city before it was walled. The first official London mint was under Carausius (AD 286-7) and continued to the time of Constantine (AD 306-37), and to as late as AD 388. London was the head of organised Christianity by AD 314, and was honoured with the addition of Augusta to the name after AD 326. The river was almost certainly bridged soon after the invasion. The site is not known but it was probably where the Medieval bridge stood. Many Roman coins and other objects have been found on this line during dredging, and Roman roads south of the Thames are aligned approximately on the Medieval bridge.
More information : (TQ 3281) LONDINIVM (R)

London was established as a commercial centre by the time of the Boudiccan revolt. The name Londinium first appears at that time in connection with its destruction by fire. Evidence for the fire has been found on a number of sites, in the form of a layer of ash one foot thick, dated by Samian ware (See map). The buildings at that time were mainly of wattle and daub, but there had been a planned development of more permanent buildings dated AD 44-50, with a reconstruction dated AD 50-60, on the site of the forum. The first forum and basilica is dated mid-Flavian (AD 69-96), the final forum being not earlier than Hadrian (AD 117-138) (See TQ 38 SW 734) A second major conflagration, not connected with any known historical event, took place in the early second century (see map). Other important buildings, all of the second century include the governor's palace, the mithraic temple, the fort and bath houses (TQ 38 SW 726, 4.518,555,589).The city wall was probably built in the late second century and certainly before AD 225, but the riverside wall is third century. The three main cemeteries are at Aldgate, Bishopgate and Newgate inncluding burials north of St Pauls which give some idea of the extent of the city before it was walled. The first official London mint was under Carausius (AD 286-7) and continued to the time of Constantine (AD 306-37), and to as late as AD 388. London was the head of organised Christianity by AD 314 and was honoured with the addition of Augusta to the name, after AD 326. The river was almost certainly bridged soon after the invasion. The site is not known but it was probably where the Medieval bridge stood, one hundred feet east of the present structure. Many Roman coins and other objects have been found on this line during dredging, and Roman roads south of the Thames are aligned approximately on the Medieval bridge.
(1-5)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1972
Page(s) :
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : RCHM Lond 3 1928 19-67 plan, illusts
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ro City of Lond 1965 29-154 plan (R Merrifield)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Towns of Ro Brit 1975 87-103 plan (J Wacher)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Lond Arch 2 1972-6 183-8 map (R Merrifield,H Sheldon)
Page(s) :
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Town, Bath House, Forum, Basilica, Temple, Fort, Town Wall, Mint, Bridge, Building
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TQ 38 SW 850
External Cross Reference Notes :

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Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
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End Date : 1988-12-31
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
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End Date : 1989-12-31
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
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End Date : 1989-12-31
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Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1989-01-01
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Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
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Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 40 QUEEN STREET/1 SKINNERS LANE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TUNNELS IN OLD BROAD STREET & THREADNEEDLE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 51-60 MARK LANE (CORN EXCHANGE) & 58 MARK LANE (CEREAL HOUSE)
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 28 & 30 BUSH LANE & 2 SUFFOLK LANE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 78-79 LEADENHALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1-3 GREAT ST THOMAS APOSTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BLOSSOM'S INN, 20-27 LAWRENCE LANE/2-4 RUSSIA ROW
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 55-58 GRACECHURCH STREET & BRABANT HOUSE, ST BENET'S PLACE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 143-149 FENCHURCH STREET, 17-20 CULLUM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TALLOW CHANDLERS HALL, 4 DOWGATE HILL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TUNNEL IN THREADNEEDLE STREET/OPPOSITE 1 THREADNEEDLE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 51-60 MARK LANE, (CORN EXCHANGE)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 64-66 CHEAPSIDE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 64-66 CHEAPSIDE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 72-75 CHEAPSIDE, 82-93 QUEEN STREET, 12 PANCRAS LANE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 72-75 CHEAPSIDE, 83-93 QUEEN STREET, 12 PANCRAS LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DOCKLANDS LIGHT RAILWAY WORKS, LOTHBURY
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, COLCHESTER HOUSE, (SAVAGE GARDENS/PEPYS STREET),/WOODRUFFE HOUSE, (COOPERS ROW)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, EQUITABLE HOUSE, 47-51 KING WILLIAM STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 54 LOMBARD STREET, GEORGE YARD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GUILDHALL YARD/72-73 BASINGHALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WEST YARD OF KING EDWARD BUILDINGS, NEWGATE STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 POULTRY
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 85 GRACECHURCH STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 7-11 BISHOPSGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 7-11 BISHOPSGATE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOLSA HOUSE, 76-80 CHEAPSIDE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LLOYD'S REGISTER OF SHIPPING, 68-71 FENCHURCH STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, REGIS HOUSE, 41-46 KING WILLIAM STREET, 18-20 FISH STREET HILL, "THE CANTERBURY ARMS"
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 11 IRONMONGER LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 7-10 LONDON STREET, (AUTOMATED PUBLIC CONVENIENCE)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BALTIC MERCANTILE & SHIPPING EXCHANGE, ST MARY AXE/14-21 ST MARY AXE/1-6 BURY COURT/19-28 BURY STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER HOUSE, 74-78 LONDON WALL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 11 IRONMONGER LANE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 42-46 GRESHAM STREET/15-17 KING STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BLOSSOMS INN, 20-27 LAWRENCE LANE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WINCHESTER HOUSE, 72 AND 74-82 LONDON WALL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 GREAT ST HELEN'S
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 12-18 MOORGATE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 4,6,8 CREECHURCH LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PROCESSION HOUSE, 55 LUDGATE HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 90-91 & 100 WOOD STREET/ST ALBAN'S COURT
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LLOYD'S REGISTER, MAGPIE HOUSE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NATIONAL HOUSE, 12-18 MOORGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, KING EDWARD BUILDINGS, GILTSPUR STREET, 104-117 NEWGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CALICO HOUSE, 60-67 WATLING STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTHGATE HOUSE & KENT HOUSE, 20-28 MOORGATE & 11-16 TELEGRAPH STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 40-43 BOW LANE, 67-71 WATLING STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 168 FENCHURCH STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 15-17 KING STREET, 42-46 GRESHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 11 LEADENHALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1-3 LUDGATE SQUARE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 8-10 OLD JEWRY
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PLANTATION HOUSE, FENCHURCH STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOW BELLS HOUSE, BREAD STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LION PLAZA, 18 OLD BROAD STREET/40-53 THREADNEEDLE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LION PLAZA, 1-18 OLD BROAD STREET/40-53 THREADNEEDLE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 5 BILLITER STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BLOSSOMS INN, 20-30 GRESHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CLEMENTS HOUSE/EUROPEAN HOUSE, 25 MILK STREET/14-18 GRESHAM STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MERCERS' HALL, IRONMONGER LANE/83-90 POULTRY
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, JUXON HOUSE, ST PAUL'S CHURCHYARD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 11-12 FOSTER LANE/1-4 CAREY LANE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 19-29 GRESHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 19-31 MOORGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEWGATE TRIANGLE, PATERNOSTER SQUARE/NEWGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LION PLAZA, OLD BROAD STREET AND THREADNEEDLE STREET, AREA D1
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LION PLAZA, OLD BROAD STREET AND THREADNEEDLE STREET, AREA C
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TABARD SQUARE, 34-70 LONG LANE/31-47 TABARD STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2003-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NUMBER 1 POULTRY/THAMES EXCHANGE
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOW BELLS HOUSE, BREAD STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 120 CHEAPSIDE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 36 POULTRY
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 14-18 GRESHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DRAPER'S GARDENS, 12 THROGMORTON AVENUE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 38-40 TRINITY SQUARE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FORUM HOUSE, 15-18 LIME STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 36-41 GRACECHURCH STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 2 COPTHALL AVENUE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 36-41 GRACECHURCH STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CANNON STREET/DOWGATE HILL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 116-120 FENCHURCH STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT 11-12 BURY STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BANK STATION CAPACITY UPGRADE, ARTHUR STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2016-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BIRCHIN LANE DROP SHAFT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 78-87 FENCHURCH STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2016-01-01
End Date : 2016-12-31