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Historic England Research Records

York City Wall

Hob Uid: 58149
Location :
York
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : SE6078051270
Summary : York Medieval City Wall. The Danish earthen defences were strengthened in 1215, by raising the bank and defending the circuit with a wooden palisade. Excavations have shown that the defences were about 100 feet wide and 125 feet high, with an external ditch 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep. In the central area of the present city the Roman defences were utilised between St Leonard's Hospital and the re-entrant angle in the rampart opposite Jewbury. The four main gates were built in stone in the 12th century. The stone walls were erected from circa 1250. The semi-circular interval towers date to this early phase of wall building. By 1315, the whole of the Micklegate and central areas were enclosed except for Old Baile. This and the Walmgate area were still defended by the earth ramparts and palisade. The Walmgate defences were walled in stone from 1345. The rectangular interval towers generally date to the first half of the 14th century, the demi-hexagonal towers date to the 14th-early 15th centuries. The defences were first armed with guns in 1491, the earliest gunports dating from shortly afterwards. The defences were repaired in 1642 and additional earthworks made, York being the headquarters of the Royalist army. York was besieged by the Scots in April 1644, and despite being relieved in July, was reinvested after the Royalist defeat at Marston Moor, surrendering on July 16th. The walls were partly destroyed in the civil war siege of York but were subsequently repaired. Restored in 1831-2.
More information : City Wall [GT] Various places (1)

It is possible taht an earthern mound was constructed in the 11th or 12th cent., these defences being strengthened in 1215. The erection of stone walls began c.1250.

In 1644 the walls were much shattered during the siege, but have been restored and are complete except in three short stretches, along the front of Museum Gardens, S.W. of Bootham Bar, and between the Old Baile and the river.

The stretch between Fishergate Postern and the present bank of the foss wass filled by the river until 1793. The wall, gates, etc are scheduled. (2,3)

Published survey (OS 1:1250 1961/62) of earthworks revised. (4)

Approximately 25 ft of low wall to north of No 9 (St Leonard's Place) (west side). Grade I. Roman. A low wall of restored heavy masonry approximately 25 ft in length which is a fragment of the south-west wall of the early C4 Roman Fortress.

Wall to south of footpath running from No 9 to Tower Street. (Tower Place). Grade II*. Late medieval appearance, the east part possibly a fragment of city wall. (For full description see list). (5)

City wall, gates, posterns, moat and mounds incl. Bayle Hill -
Scheduled York SE 601524 - 605524. (6)

The gunports in the walLs are of five clear types, and date to the second half of the 15th century. (7)

Full architectural description of the Mediaeval defences. Three types of interval tower are present, the semi-circular dating to 1266-1318, the rectangular from circa 1300-1349, and the demi-hexagonal from 1300-1449. (8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 1:1250 1961/2
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : A history of Yorkshire: the city of York
Source details : (Tillott)
Page(s) : 510-4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1961
Source Number : 3
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : List Anc Mons 1961 106 (MOW)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Emsley, R W 06-Jun-63 RCHME Field Investigation
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : DOE (HHR) City of York N Yorks June 1983 289 and 354
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : DOE (HHR) AMs Eng 1 1977 64
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : Fort : the international journal of fortification and military architecture
Source details :
Page(s) : 85
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 4, 1977
Source Number : 8
Source : An inventory of the historical monuments in the City of York. Volume II: the defences
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : CBA research reports
Source details : Medieval Towns in England and Wales.
Page(s) : 58-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 14 - 1975

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 11th to 12th century
Monument End Date : 1199
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Palisade, Rampart
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Defences strengthened
Monument End Date : 1215
Monument Start Date : 1215
Monument Type : Rampart
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Stone walls built from circa 1250
Monument End Date : 1399
Monument Start Date : 1250
Monument Type : Town Defences, Town Wall
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 1450-1499
Monument End Date : 1499
Monument Start Date : 1450
Monument Type : Loopholed Wall, Town Wall
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Defences slighted 1644
Monument End Date : 1644
Monument Start Date : 1644
Monument Type : Town Defences, Town Wall
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : rebuilt post 1644
Monument End Date : 1645
Monument Start Date : 1645
Monument Type : Town Defences, Town Wall
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Restored
Monument End Date : 1832
Monument Start Date : 1831
Monument Type : Town Defences, Town Wall
Evidence : Structure

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : YO 30
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 61946
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 61947
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 463065
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 463050
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 463052
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 463053
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 463056
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 463063
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 61948
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1259262
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1004910
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1259260
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1259296
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1259293
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1259292
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1259290
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 65 SW 5
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1406807
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 536720
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536723
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536725
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536730
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536744
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536748
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536754
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536760
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536764
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536766
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536774
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536726
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536727
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536728
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536731
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536732
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536733
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536734
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536738
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536739
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536755
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536756
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536757
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536758
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536759
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536773
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536772
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536763
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536775
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536777
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536767
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536768
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536769
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536770
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536736
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1406599
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536716
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536717
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536718
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536719
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536721
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1406628
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536722
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536724
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536729
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536741
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536745
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536746
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536747
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536749
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536750
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536751
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536753
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 536761
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, THE PUBLIC LIBRARY (REAR)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date :
End Date :
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK LEGIONARY FORTRESS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1925-01-01
End Date : 1925-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DEANERY GARDEN/DEANERY PARK
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1927-01-01
End Date : 1927-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MERCHANT TAYLOR'S HALL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1949-01-01
End Date : 1949-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE RED TOWER
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FISHERGATE BAR
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FISHERGATE POSTERN AND TOWER
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALMGATE BAR
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TOWER ST/CASTLEGATE POSTERN/DAVY TOWER
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTH STREET POSTERN
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ANGLIAN TOWER/TOWER 19
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1969-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BETWEEN MULTANGULAR & ANGLIAN TOWERS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALMGATE/WILLOW STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NUNNERY LANE CAR PARK
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1980-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY BANK, TOFT GREEN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, JEWBURY MOAT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TOFT GREEN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 48 GILLYGATE(WAGON AND HORSES)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALL FOSS ISLANDS ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, TOWER 13, TOFT'S TOWER
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS: WALMGATE BAR
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 48 GILLYGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALL: STATION ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS: WALMGATE BAR
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LORD MAYORS WALK, CITY MILLS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS,TOWER 1
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS: TOWER 16 TO TOWER 17
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS TOWER 4
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS,WALMGATE BAR
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1988-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS,WALMGATE-FISHERGATE BAR
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS,TOWER 14,STATION ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK: DEVELOPMENT & ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS,WALMGATE TO FISHERGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALL,TOWER 37
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS: WALMGATE TO FISHERGATE
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS ADJACENT TO MONK BAR
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALL, TOWER 14, STATION RISE, YORK
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, NUNNERY LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS: JEWBURY
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS (WALMGATE TO FISHERGATE BAR CHAINAGE 3100 - 3200) YORK
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, BUTTRESS AT CHAINAGE 1681.8
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 2262-2384
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, MONK BAR (2272-2300), WALMGATE TO FISHERGATE BAR CHAINAGE 3200-3240.8
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS: CHAINAGE 2531.2, 3316-3324, 3061.8-3089
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 693.1, 1681.1, 1800-1804.4, 2167-2215
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS (CHAINAGE 1919-1921)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS (CHAINAGE 949-1000)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS (CHAINAGE 1000-1017)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 2919-3247
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 492- 587
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST MARY'S ABBEY WALL (CHAINAGE 100-112)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS (CHAINAGE 3000-3100)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS (CHAINAGE 3416-3479)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS (CHAINAGES 1800-1900 & 2200-2245)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: VALE OF YORK NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1998-01-06
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 2500-2586
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, NUNNERY LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 300-365
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, YORK CITY WALLS, CHAINAGE 822-906
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND REAR OF 8 GILLYGATE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS (CHAINAGE 2100-2440)
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY OF YORK STREETSCAPE
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31