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Site of Gawthorpe Hall and Gawthorpe Medieval Settlement at Harewood Park
County: West Yorks
District: Leeds
Parish: Harewood CP
Monument Number: ( 688 )
Gawthorpe Hall and associated medieval settlement are located within the Harewood House estate, a Registered Park and Garden (PRN 4000) . The earliest known reference to Gawthorpe dates from 1266 when 'Goukethorp' was recorded (Smith 1961, 181). The precise location and characteristics of the settlement of Gawthorpe are unclear, although Jones writing in 1859 states that 'It [Gawthorpe] was a separate village and manor' (it should be noted that the local Antiquarian Whitaker claims that Gawthorpe was never a manor (Whitaker 1816, 166)) and 'It stood somewhere between the old Hall and the Stank' (Jones 1859, 199). This is, however, incorrect as the particulars of the Manors of Harewood and Gawthorpe were drawn up in 1656 in preparation of their sale to Sir John Cutler from William Wentworth (WYAS WYL 250/3/12a). Whitaker does however quote this document and suggests that Gawthorpe village may have been situated close to 'The Stank or Pond att Gawthorpe' (Whitaker 1816, 167). In this case, the document refers to Gawthorpe Hall, while Stank was the millpond associated with Gawthorpe Mill. By coincidence the adjacent hamlet is also known as Stank, although this name only came into use during the 1740s (Brigg 1914), and had until then been referred to as Hetherick. The estate at Gawthorpe and the castle and manor of Harewood shared not only a close spatial relationship, but also a cultural one. Gawthorpe came into the possession of the Gascoigne family in c1135 through marriage (Jones 1859, 199). Through inter-marriage, the Gascoignes of Gawthorpe and the Redmans and Rithers (Lords of Harewood) shared a close family bond. By 1600 the two estates were effectively joined when Thomas Wentworth purchased the Manors of Gawthorpe and Harewood (Jones 1859, 200). The earliest known reference to a building at Gawthorpe dates from 1480 when William Gascoigne was granted a licence to crenellate his manor of Gawthorpe (Mitchelmore in Faull and Moorhouse 1981, 387). In 1477 a marriage is recorded that took place in the domestic chapel of the manor house (Jones 1859, 199), presumably this is a reference to an oratory rather than to the nearby All Saints' Church (PRN 699). Two illustrations by Van der Hagen dating from the early 1720s show Gawthorpe Hall as a building of two principal areas. The first, forming a 'U' shape, is likely to have been the earliest part of the structure, noted as the 'old building' in the 1656 survey (WYAS WYL 250/2/12a), featuring crenellations and what may have been a hall or chapel. The flanking range of 9 bays, as depicted by Van der Hagen, includes a hipped roof with a piano noblee and a classical entrance to the north. It is likely that this part of the hall was established by William Wentworth in the first half of the 17th century. Formal gardens appear to have encircled the hall and were enclosed by a garden wall. They were of a geometric style with a small orchard to the east and a series of a gravelled walks. An illustration included on the 1698 Harewood Estate map (WYAS WYL/250/3/33) shows that these gardens had been created by at least the end of the 17th century. In 1738 the joint estate (of Gawthorpe and Harewood) was bought by Henry Lascalles and was passed to Edwin Lascalles in 1753 (Jones 1859, 74). In 1771 Edwin Lascalles demolished Gawthorpe Hall (1771-4) and moved into the newly built Harewood House (PRN 1429). A number of sources do suggest that a settlement associated with Gawthorpe, and perhaps as a precursor to Harewood village, had existed in the landscape north of Gawthorpe Hall. Beresford reported that the settlement may have been destroyed by emparking undertaken by Sir William Gascoigne from 1480 (Beresford 1953, 219). The first site (PRN 2613) lies to the north-west of All Saints' Church (PRN 699) where a series of earthwork platforms and building sites were recorded by SAM. In 1986, however, it was suggested that no wall footings or dimensions of such buildings were discernable (RCHME 1986). The second site (PRN 1366) lies to the north of Church Lane and the Castle Plantation (SE 3162 4532), where a series of low profile platforms were recorded in 1979); later survey by the RCHME suggested that these may not have been linked to the former settlement. In summary, while some slight earthworks have been recorded there is currently no definitive evidence suggesting that the former borough of Harewood (Mitchelmore in Faull and Moorhouse 1981, 387) was located to the north of All Saints' Church. Aerial photographs taken in 1984 reveal parchmarks in the south lawn between Harewood House and the lake, and these were believed to be related to the Hall. Field investigations undertaken by SAM indicated that there were a series of three terraces that had survived the 18th century landscaping of the area, while a small number of linear features situated on a north/south alignment appeared to relate to drainage. Medieval pottery recovered from one drain (pers. comm. Terry Suthers) may indicate a direct relationship with Gawthorpe Hall. A resistivity survey undertaken by Bradford University in 1999 produced evidence for stone foundations and slight earthworks at SE 3117 4441 (Hamilton & Schmit 1999). Further resistivity and magnetometry surveys undertaken by the University of York between 2007-8, augmented the earlier work and produced further evidence of foundations and the likely site of the hall and stables. In 2009, members of the University of York began to excavate the site and in the first season revealed the southern extent of what is believed to be the stable block as well as a stone flagged floor understood to be leading to the hall. A photograph of York University excavation work in 2012 (Medieval Yorkshire, YAS 2017 p23) and a footnote on the same page suggests that a report by Jonathan Finch, York University will be forthcomming 2017/2018. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- During the Lower Wharfedale National Mapping Project undertaken by English Heritage in 2004 which mapped aerial photography the following was noted: Site of a deserted settlement and manor house in Harewood Park. Remains of the hall and its garden features are visible as parchmarks on air photographs. The settlement was deserted by 1494. The manor house was fortified in 1480 and demolished in 1770-76. "Gawthorpe c310442. This is one of the lost hamlets of Harewood long absorbed in the Park. John Jones 'History of Harewood (1859), quoting from B.M. Lans. MS.915, f.133, places the village between the Hall [Harewood Hall] and Stanks. ... From a case here in 1554 it seems that Gawthorpe was enclosed and probably destroyed before 1494." (Beresford M W. Lost Villages of Yorkshire, 1952-5, in the The Yorkshire archaeological journal, Vol 38, pgs 219 & 237). According to S Moorhouse, 1985, Council for British Archaeology Group 4 Yorkshire Archaeological Register, pg 14, the full layout of Gawthorpe Hall and its gardens revealed as parch marks on air photos in 1984 on slopes to S of Harewood House. In 1480, William Gascoigne was granted licence to crenellate his manor of Gawthorpe (circa SE 313 441) which in due course became the administrative centre of Harewood township. This was demolished between 1770-76 and replaced by Harewood House (Faull, M. L. & S E Moorhouse (eds.), 1981, Volume 2). Aerial photography of 1984 showed that the remains of Gawthorpe Hall and associated garden features are visible as parchmarks on air photographs. The features are centred at SE 3120 4439 and comprise a complex of many linear parchmarks on average 0.6m wide. It has not been possible to identify a full and coherent layout of the hall and gardens.

Sources
Publication
Davis, P., 2017. ' Yorkshire Licences to Crenellate' in YAS, Medieval Yorkshire, p23
Publication
Yorkshire Post, 11/05/2011, 'Harewood Excavation reveals link with Caribbean'
AP
WY 127/5,6; 136/23-25
Desc.text
Sainsbury, I. S., 1986. RCHME Investigator
Verbal communication
Suthers, T., 2009. Former head curator of the Harewood House Trust (retired 2007)
Report
Hamilton, K, & Schmidt, A., 1999. Gawthorpe Hall: Geophysical Survey Report, GP99-05, University of Bradford,Department of Archaeological Sciences
Desc.text
Mauchline. M.,1974. Harewood House
Publication
Bogg, E., 1902. 'Round About Leeds and the Old Villages in Elmete'
Publication
Langdale, T., 1822. A Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire.
Publication
Beresford, M.W., 1953. The Lost Villages of Yorkshire Part III in the The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal Part 150 "nd Part of Vol XXXVIII pp 214-240.
Desc.text
Jones. J., 1859. History of Harewood.
Correspondence
Mitchelmore, D.J.H., 1981. Township Gazetteer in Faull. M.L. & Moorhouse. S.A. West Yorkshire: An Archaeological Survey to A.D. 1500 Vol II pp 294-576.
Map
OS, (6 inches to 1 mile) 1st Edition, 1851. Map sheet 188
Illustration
Smith, J., 1727. South Prospect of Gawthorpe near Leeds in the County of York Located in SMR Map tank 3
Doc.ref.
WYAS WYL 250/3/12a: West Yorkshire Archive Services, Leeds, Sheepscar, Harewood Estate Archive, Estate Surveys
Map
WYAS WYL/250/3/33: West Yorkshire Archive Services, Leeds, Sheepscar, Harewood Estate Archive, Estate Maps
Correspondence
Moorhouse S.A.
Desc.text
O.S record card SE34SW 3
AP
English Heritage. 28/01/2010. NMR refs: 20975/25-27; 20976/8-15
Map
Warburton, J., 1720. Yorkshire.
Desc.text
Oakey, M. (English Heritage) 2003. 'NMR Complete Monument Record: Unique Identifier 53165'
Publication
CBA, 1987. Group 4 Register for 1987, p32
Publication
Whitaker, T.D., 1816. Loidis and Elmete
Map
Jeffreys, T., 1775. A Survey of the County of Yorkshire
Publication
Van der Hagen, 1722, Gawthorpe near Leeds in the County of York the Seat of John Boultre Esq Anno Domini 1722.
Publication
Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 1988. Vol 60, Archaeological Register 1987 p184
AP
NMR SE 3144/22-23 (19367/05-06) 11-Jul-1984
AP
NMR SE 3144/24-26 (19373/23-25) 30-Jul-1984
Desc.text
English Heritage, 2004, Lower Wharfedale National Mapping Programme; Unique Identifier 53165