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Historic England Research Records

Deva

Hob Uid: 69027
Location :
Cheshire West and Chester
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : SJ4050066200
Summary : Roman legionary fortress, built during the Flavian period on the site of an earlier Roman fort. Possibly occupied until the end of the 4th century.
More information : (SJ 405662) Deva Roman Legionary Fortress (R) (1)

The Roman Legionary Fortress at Chester, of 59.3 acres
(56 acres(4)), was built between 78-86 A D., on a sandstone plateau
enclosed by two arms of the River Dee and was occupied by the
Legio II Adiutrix. Preceeding this was a fort consisting of a
timber box rampart with a soil core retained by planking, of pre
flavian date (A D 50-60). The defences of the legionary fortress
consisted of a turf rampart with interval towers surrounded
by a 'V' shaped ditch. The Legio XX Valeria Victrix took over
the fortress circa A D 86. Throughout the second century the
defences and internal buildings were replaced with stone. Early
in the third century the defences were refurbished. The ramparts
and interval towers were heightened and widened. This was followed
by a reconstruction of the fortresses internal buildings. At
the end of the third century there was widespread demolition of the
internal buildings. Strickland postulates that this was the time
that the Legio XX Valeria Victrix left Chester. But Frere states
that the legion left Chester circa 383 AD to aid Magnus Maximus
in his rebellion against Gratian; the fortress then appears to
have been left to the Votadni under Cunnedda. Name accepted by
Rivet. See illustration.

The excavated area at Abbey Green, which revealed Roman occupation
from the late 50's A D to the abandonment of the Legionary
Fortress has been scheduled.

Two rampart buildings, an interval tower and the inter vallum
roadway at Abbey Green at SJ 40486668 were exposed at the time
of the investigation. There is a proposal to preserve the tower
and rampart buildings.(2-10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : O S 6" 1968
Page(s) :
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : New Evidence from Ro Chester 1978 (Ed T J Strickland & P J Davey)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Deva Ro Chester 1959 ( F H Thompson)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : BAR 21 "Ro Fort Defences to AD 117 with special ref to Brit" 1975 142 (M Jones)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia, a Hist of Ro Brit, 1967 360-1 (S Frere)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : J Ches Arch Soc 63 1980 5-13 (T J Strickland)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Place Names of Ro Britain 1979 336-7(A L F Rivet & C Smith)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : J Ches A S 63 1980 15-31 (J C McPeake)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE(IAM) AM's List 3 1978 20
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 DJC 09-MAR-76
Page(s) :
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Legionary Fortress, Fort
Evidence : Structure, Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CH 103
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SJ 46 NW 18
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1047906
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FEATHERS INN, BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1863-01-01
End Date : 1863-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MASONIC HALL,HUNTER STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1909-01-01
End Date : 1914-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DEANERY FIELD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1922-01-01
End Date : 1928-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, INTERVAL TOWERS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1923-01-01
End Date : 1935-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FORTRESS WALL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1928-01-01
End Date : 1928-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST JOHN STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1930-01-01
End Date : 1930-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 ABBEY GREEN
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1934-01-01
End Date : 1935-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DEANERY FIELD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1935-01-01
End Date : 1935-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PRINCESS STREET/CROOK STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1939-01-01
End Date : 1939-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST MARTINS FIELD/PRINCESS STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1945-01-01
End Date : 1945-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GOSS STREET/CROOK STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1948-01-01
End Date : 1949-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LINENHALL STREET/TRINITY STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1949-01-01
End Date : 1949-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WATERGATE HOUSE, WATERGATE ROAD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1949-01-01
End Date : 1949-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, EAST OF TRINITY STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1950-01-01
End Date : 1953-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH-EAST ANGLE TOWER
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1951-01-01
End Date : 1951-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NICHOLAS STREET/WEAVER STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1953-01-01
End Date : 1954-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOLLAND'S COURT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1954-01-01
End Date : 1954-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 'RICHARD JONES', BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1954-01-01
End Date : 1954-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FOLLIOT HOUSE, NORTHGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1955-01-01
End Date : 1955-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 32-36 NEWGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1955-01-01
End Date : 1955-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WEAVER STREET/COMMONHALL STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1956-01-01
End Date : 1956-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NICHOLAS STREET/WEAVER STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1957-01-01
End Date : 1957-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BOLLAND'S COURT
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, EASTGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WOOLWORTHS,EASTGATE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WATERGATE HOUSE,WATERGATE ST./NUN'S RD.
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1959-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LINENHALL STREET CARPARK
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1961-01-01
End Date : 1963-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CROOK STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1963-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PRINCESS STREET/PUBLIC MARKET (WEST OF)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1963-01-01
End Date : 1965-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 29 BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1963-01-01
End Date : 1963-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NEWGATE STREET/PEPPER STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1963-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WHITE FRIARS (WEST END)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1964-01-01
End Date : 1964-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTH-WEST ANGLE TOWER
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1964-01-01
End Date : 1965-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST. MARTIN'S FIELDS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1965-01-01
End Date : 1965-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, OLD POST OFFICE YARD,WATERGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FRODSHAM STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, OLD MARKET HALL, NORTHGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1967-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GOSS STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, C & A MODES STORE, FOREGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ASTONS,WATERGATE STREET/GOSS STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BELL TOWER, ST WERBURGH STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HAMILTON PLACE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1971-01-01
End Date : 1971-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GOSS STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1974-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, TELEPHONE EXCHANGE/ST JOHN STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTHGATE BREWERY
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1974-01-01
End Date : 1975-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 ABBEY GREEN
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1978-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SJ 46 NW 18
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1976-03-09
End Date : 1976-03-09
Associated Activities : Primary, HUNTER STREET SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1979-01-01
End Date : 1979-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PRINCESS STREET/HUNTER'S WALK
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1979-01-01
End Date : 1981-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ST JOHN STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1980-01-01
End Date : 1989-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PRINCESS STREET AREA
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1981-01-01
End Date : 1982-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HUNTER STREET (NORTH SIDE)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1982-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SHIPGATE STREET/ST MARY'S HILL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1982-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALLS, SOUTH OF KING CHARLES' TOWER
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FORMER DRILL HALL, DUKE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GREY FRIARS HOUSE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GROSVENOR PRECINCT, PEPPER STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTHGATE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1983-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BRIDGEGATE HOUSE, 5 BRIDGE PLACE, LOWER BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CITY WALL: WEST OF NORTHGATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BRIDGE STREET-FEATHERS LANE GAS MAIN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 12 WATERGATE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 37 EASTGATE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1985-01-01
End Date : 1985-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUPPIN STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1986-01-01
End Date : 1986-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHESTER: ARCHAEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS SURVEY
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ABBEY SQUARE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, COMMONHALL VILLAGE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 5-7 FOREGATE STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 5-7 FOREGATE STREET (W H SMITH'S)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1991-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 12 HAMILTON PLACE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, COMMONHALL STREET, SOUTH SIDE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PIERPOINT LANE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 12 HAMILTON PLACE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, PEMBERTON HOUSE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FORMER ST AUGUSTINE'S CONVENT, UNION STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WEAVER STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WEAVER STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 25-29 BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 12 ST JOHN STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WATERGATE STREET RESURFACING
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, DEE HOUSE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT THE GROSVENOR CENTRE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT ST OLAVE STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHESTER CATHEDRAL SONG SCHOOL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BROWN'S DEPARTMENT STORE, BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT NORTHGATE DEVELOPMENT
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GROSVENOR CENTRE REFURBISHMENT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT THE NORTHGATE DEVELOPMENT
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, REAR OF BROWN'S STORE, 25 BRIDGE STREET
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT HUNTER STREET/GOLDSMITH HOUSE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 21-31 NEWGATE ROW, GROSVENOR SHOPPING CENTRE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HAMILTON HOUSE, TRINITY STREET
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2006-01-01
End Date : 2006-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND OFF ST. MARTIN'S WAY
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHESTER CATHEDRAL QUARTER
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH EAST ANGLE TOWER
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHESTER TOWN HALL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GROSVENOR HOTEL YARD, CITY WALLS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, EDGAR'S FIELD, HANDBRIDGE
Activity type : LIDAR SURVEY
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTHGATE REDEVELOPMENT
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT DEANERY FIELD
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2016-01-01
End Date : 2016-12-31