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HER Number:MDV106851
Name:Buddles in Redwater Valley, above Challacombe


Four early 20th century buddles associated with wheelpit at Redwater. Surveyed in 2013.


Grid Reference:SX 688 791
Map Sheet:SX67NE
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishManaton
Civil ParishWidecombe in the Moor
Ecclesiastical ParishMANATON

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: 915206

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • BUDDLE (XX - 1920 AD to 1927 AD (Between))

Full description

Greeves, T. A. P., 1986, Tin Mines and Miners of Dartmoor, A photographic record, 60 (Monograph). SDV351363.

Two images; one of the trommel units in the lower part of the Redwater Valley (dated approximately 1929), and the second of the buddles under construction dated approximately 1927.

Pattison, P., 1990, Field investigation, 15/06/1990 (Report - Survey). SDV356547.

SX 6887 7912. Buddle 1. Virtually buried in the marsh. A short arc of stone walling 0.2 metres high is visible immediately west of the wheelpit and the pin of the iron spindle just projects above the marsh, giving a radius of 3.7 metres for the buddle.
SX 6887 7910. Buddle 2. A not-quite circular, flat-bottomed depression 4.75-5.3 metres diameter with vertical sides 0.2 metres deep revetted with carefully placed small stones. This depression is the buddle floor where the tin concentrate collected: in the centre is a circular cone 1.1 metres in diameter and 0.45 metres high of corbelled small stones with a decaying concrete cap housing an iron spindle with central pin (this held the connections to the brushes). Just outside the east-south-east arc is a decaying stump of a timber post, 0.4 metres high, one of two opposed posts which supported a horizontal beam across the buddle from which hung a vertical rod connecting wheel to cone, spindle and buddle brushes.
SX 6886 7912. Buddle 3. The circuit is marked mainly by moss and sedge growing over the remains of the perimeter. This was constructed of upright thin granite slabs placed edge to edge, three of which survive on the south-west arc. The original diameter was approximately 8.2 metres. The central cone with its concrete cap is 1.05 metres wide 0.3 metres high. The decaying timber stumps of the uprights supporting the horizontal beam, spindle etc. are both visible on the south-west and north-east arcs.
Leats supplying both buddles and wheel survive just outside to both east and west (see related records).

Agricultural Development Advisory Service, 1991, Challacombe Farm Postbridge, Devon (Duchy Farms Project), 29, Map D1 (Report - Assessment). SDV356546.

Tin treatment plant comprising a rectangular wheelpit and several buddles.

English Heritage, 2005, Industrial Survey Information (Report - Survey). SDV346396.

Depicted on the survey data.

GeoInformation Group Ltd, 2010, 1:625 2010 Colour (12.5cm resolution) (Aerial Photograph). SDV346026.

Area of buddles adjacent to wheelpit visible on aerial photograph.

Welch, B. + Welch, T., 2014, 1:100 survey of the Redwater wheel pit and buddles (Plan - measured). SDV356560.

Watson, P., 2014, 20th century Alluvial Tin Working in the Redwater Valley (Un-published). SDV357834.

During the site survey in 2013, the three buddles were identified primarily by the stone and concrete central distribution cones, which still had their steel bearing ‘pins’ in place. The remains of several posts were also found being part of the timber frames supporting the buddle mechanisms. A fourth small buddle was found on the left hand side of the site when viewed from the wheelpit. This small buddle is of different construction, the sides being of stone rather than wood, which was used on the other three. Was this small buddle of an earlier period than the others; Plate 57 in Greeves’s (1986) book shows a small stone walled buddle with its own waterwheel in operation, the other photographs show a site under construction?

Sources / Further Reading

SDV346026Aerial Photograph: GeoInformation Group Ltd. 2010. 1:625 2010 Colour (12.5cm resolution). 2010 Aerial Photographs. Digital. [Mapped feature: #66361 ]
SDV346396Report - Survey: English Heritage. 2005. Industrial Survey Information. English Heritage. Digital.
SDV351363Monograph: Greeves, T. A. P.. 1986. Tin Mines and Miners of Dartmoor, A photographic record. Tin Mines and Miners of Dartmoor, A photographic record. Paperback Volume. 60.
SDV356546Report - Assessment: Agricultural Development Advisory Service. 1991. Challacombe Farm Postbridge, Devon (Duchy Farms Project). Agricultural Development Advisory Service. A3 Comb Bound. 29, Map D1.
SDV356547Report - Survey: Pattison, P.. 1990. Field investigation. Royal Commission for the Historical Monuments of England Archaeological Survey. Digital. 15/06/1990.
SDV356560Plan - measured: Welch, B. + Welch, T.. 2014. 1:100 survey of the Redwater wheel pit and buddles. 1:100. A4 Single Sheet.
SDV357834Un-published: Watson, P.. 2014. 20th century Alluvial Tin Working in the Redwater Valley. Dartmoor Tinworking Research Group. Digital.

Associated Monuments

MDV53013Part of: Tin mill in Redwater Valley, above Challacombe (Monument)
MDV106853Related to: Leat in Redwater Valley, above Challacombe (Monument)
MDV106854Related to: Leats in Redwater Valley, above Challacombe (Monument)
MDV106846Related to: Streamworks west of Challacombe Down (Monument)
MDV106852Related to: Wheelpit in Redwater Valley, above Challacombe (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV6476 - The Redwater wheel pit and buddles

Date Last Edited:Feb 6 2015 4:02PM