HeritageGateway - Home

Login  |  Register
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Devon & Dartmoor HER Result
Devon & Dartmoor HERPrintable version | About Devon & Dartmoor HER | Visit Devon & Dartmoor HER online...

See important guidance on the use of this record.

If you have any comments or new information about this record, please email us.


HER Number:MDV10778
Name:Cross Dyke at Three Horshoes Inn, Colyton

Summary

Cross ridge dyke comprising a bank and adjacent ditch on a north-south alignment straddling an east-west ridge. It survives as combination of above and below ground remains, and may have extended further. The bank has been largely ploughed out but is recorded in the 19th century as standing some 3.5 metres high. Excavations showed the ditch to have been V-shaped and originally about 1.7 metres deep. No dateable artefacts have been recovered indicating a date for the construction of the dyke, which may be prehistoric or post Roman.

Location

Grid Reference:SY 188 913
Map Sheet:SY19SE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBranscombe
Civil ParishSouthleigh
DistrictEast Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishCOLYTON
Ecclesiastical ParishBRANSCOMBE

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • MPP Archaeological Item Dataset: 144387
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SY19SE/5
  • Old SAM County Ref: 267
  • Old SAM Ref: 29636
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division: SY19SE15

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • CROSS DYKE (Built, Early Neolithic to VII - 4000 BC to 700 AD (Between))

Full description

Unknown, Flint Finds (Worksheet). SDV342854.

Flint flakes, blade and scraper found by P. O. Hutchinson in 1873 near cross dyke, now in Royal Albert Memorial Museum Exeter. Other details: EXE/149/175/5; EXE 156/175; A.4093.


Earwood, C., Linear Earthwork - Southleigh near The Three Horse Shoes (Worksheet). SDV342852.

Extracts from P. O. Hutchinson's diaries in Devon Record Office, referring to earthwork and finds from fieldwalking in vicinity.


Passmore, A. + Pears, B., 08/2015, Land at the Three Horseshoes Inn, Southleigh, near Branscombe, Devon (Report - Evaluation). SDV359334.

Trench evaluation and historic building survey undertaken in advance of proposed development. Due to the presence of live services feeding the Three Horseshoes Inn and adjoining properties the Scheduled Monument could not be evaluated. The trenches excavated to the east of the Scheduled Monument did not expose any significant archaeological remains, with the majority of the deposits and features being of later post-medieval and modern date. There was also a high level of truncation of historic deposits.


Hutchinson, P. O., 1862, On the Hill Fortresses, Tumuli, and some other Antiquities of Eastern Devon, 55 (Article in Serial). SDV338169.


Hutchinson, P. O., 1868, On Hill Fortresses, Sling-Stones, and other Antiquities in South Eastern Devon, 381 (Article in Serial). SDV120058.

Traces of a ditch and agger behind The Three Horse Shoes, on the road from Honiton Gate to Colyford. It begins in a field behind the inn and runs northward for more than 300 metres to the declivity of the hill, where it turns eastward by a rounded corner. It continues also in the opposite direction for nearly another 300 metres. An old man remembered the ridge as being 3.50 metres high before it was cultivated. It may have been thrown up for defence by occupiers of Blackbury Castle.


Hutchinson, P. O., 1872, Bronze Celt Found Near Sidmouth, 82-3 (Article in Serial). SDV342836.


Ordnance Survey, 1889, LXXXIII 5 (Cartographic). SDV342837.

'Earthwork' shown to north and south of Three Horse Shoes.


Wall, J. C., 1906, Ancient Earthworks, 624-5 (Article in Monograph). SDV341465.


Ministry of Works, 1952, Linear Earthwork North of Three Horse Shoes Inn (Schedule Document). SDV342833.

A cross ridge and dyke, originally extending from Borcombe to the edge of Branscombe, but the southern end is ploughed out and not worth scheduling. The northern end, as shown on the 6 inch map, consists of a curving bank and ditch, facing east and ending at the wood. The overall length is 160 feet; height of bank 2 feet. Both ploughed. Condition fairly good.


Fox, A., 1952, Twenty-first Report on Ancient Monuments, 241 (Article in Serial). SDV342835.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1953 - 1980, SY19SE15 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV342838.

Cross dyke. Linear earthwork, SY19009161 to SY18959155 to SY18969143, north of Three Horse Shoes inn.
Visited on 05/03/1957. Just possible to define slopes along part of feature, although very shallow. Other details: Plans.


Unknown, 1976, Flint Tools (Worksheet). SDV342855.

Flint tools, found by P. O. Hutchinson near cross dyke in 1872-3, include scraper, borers and kinves. In Royal Albert Memorial Museum Exeter. Other details: EXE/149/175/5; A.4111 + 4112; A.4082 + 4083.


Robinson, R., 1982, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1982 (Un-published). SDV345608.

Site visit by Department of Environment Field Monument Warden on 13th July 1982.


Robinson, R., 1983, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1983 (Un-published). SDV345762.

Site visit by Department of Environment Field Monument Warden on 27th March 1983.


Robinson, R., 1986, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1986 (Un-published). SDV345664.

Site visit by Department of Environment Field Monument Warden on 6th March 1986.


Turton, S. D. + Weddell, P. J., 1992, Archaeological Assessment of SWW Branscombe to Gatcombe Water Main, 2 (Report - Assessment). SDV342841.


Reed, S. J. + Watts, M., 1994, Archaeological Recording at Cross Dyke Linear Earthwork, Southleigh (Report - Watching Brief). SDV342845.

Excavation and recording work undertaken before and during pipeline construction to north of Three Horse Shoes Inn on line of cross dyke. In the area examined, the bank is no longer visible on the surface, but vestiges survive below ground. The V-shaped ditch is well-preserved below the current ground level, and is thought to survive up to a depth of 2 metres on either side of the road. A second, shallower ditch was also discovered. Palaeoenvironmental and carbon14 samples taken. No associated finds recovered.


Reed, S. J. + Watts, M., 1994, Archaeological Recording of SWW Branscombe to Gatcombe Water Main, 2-3 (Report - Watching Brief). SDV342842.

Excavation and recording work was undertaken along the route of a pipeline on the line of Cross Dyke, part of which is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The bank is no longer visible in the area examined but vestiges survive below ground. The V-shaped ditch is well-preserved below ground level and is thought to survive up to a depth of 2.0 metres on either side of the road. A second shallower ditch was also recorded. Samples were taken for palaeoenvironmental analysis and radiocarbon dating. No finds were recovered.


Salvatore, J. P., 1997, Cross Ridge Dyke at South Horse Shoes Inn, 144387 (Un-published). SDV342847.

The prehistoric cross-ridge dyke, in the form of a bank and ditch running north-south and straddling an east-west ridge about midway between Seaton and Sidmouth survives as a combination of above and below ground earthworks. The known portion of the earthwork extends for a total distance of 640 metres from NGR SY18779102 in the south to SY19009162 in the north with a kink in the line at SY18949145. Only the most northerly 200 metres may be seen above ground where the monuments survives as a low flat bank about 7.5 metres wide and 0.6 metres high in fields behind the Three Horse Shoes Inn. Excavation in 1993 across the line of the earthwork close behind the inn demonstrated that the monument was univallate with a ditch sited on the east side of the bank; a radio carbon sample of charcoal from beneath the bank produced a prehistoric date. The ditch was found in excavation to be V-shaped, about 5.5 metres in width and 1.7 metres in depth, and was sealed with material derived from the bank either by way of slumping or by plough action (the v-shape is unusual in univallate cross-dykes with a u-shape representing the norm). The known south portion of the earthwork had a bank recorded as 10 metres in width perhaps caused by spread due to plough action and, although it can no longer be seen, the ditch is confidently expected to survive as a below ground feature beneath the Three Horse Shoes Inn and beneath fields further to south of the A3052. This is supported by an Ordnance Survey map of 1889 which shows the bank extending into fields south of the Three Horse Shoes Inn for a distance of over 250 metres and both Hutchinson and Wall describe a formidable bank south of the road in former times. Hutchinson produced a plan in 1861 which shows the south end of the bank turning to the west and he includes 2 areas of stone foundations west of the bank and a further stretch of earthwork south-east of Borcombe Farm but it is uncertain whether these features are contemporary with the cross-ridge dyke.


Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 1998, Cross Ridge Dyke Extending North and South of The Three Horse Shoes Inn (Schedule Document). SDV342851.

The monument includes a prehisoric cross ridge dyke taking the form of a bank and adjacent ditch running north-south and straddling an east-west ridge midway between Seaton and Sidmouth. It survives as a combination of above and below ground remains and it may have extended beyond those sections of it which are now visible or which have been recorded. Despite having been reduced by cultivation, the cross dyke straddling the ridge either side of the Three Horse Shoes Inn represents a rare survival of this type of monument and it possesses features, either visible at ground level or buried beneath the ground surface, which contain archaeological and environmental information about the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed. Other details: Map.


Exeter Archaeology, 2003-2004, East Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Archaeological Survey, 425 (Archive - Survey). SDV351568.


Torrance, J., 2007, Raddis Lane: Cross-dyke and Chapel, 1-6 (Report - non-specific). SDV347527.

Earthwork generally thought to date from the Iron Age, probably connected with Blackbury Camp to the north, and built to defend or control a prehistoric east-west track along the ridgeway. Other details: Plan.


English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West, 96 (Report - non-specific). SDV342694.

Cross ridge dyke extending north and south of the Three Horse Shoes Inn. Extensive significant problems, i.e. under plough, collapse.


English Heritage, 2010, Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West, 87 (Report - non-specific). SDV344777.

Condition declining, principal vulnerability arable ploughing.


Ordnance Survey, 2010, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV344030.


English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West, 89 (Report - non-specific). SDV355280.

Condition declining, principal vulnerability arable ploughing.


Quinnell, H. + Reed, S., 2012, Archaeology and the Branscombe to Gatcombe Water Pipeline, East Devon, 87-105 (Article in Serial). SDV351756.

Archaeological investigations along the route of a pipeline from Branscombe to Gatcombe enabled the investigation of a scheduled linear earthwork or cross-ridge dyke. It comprises a bank and ditch about 640 metres long running north-south from SY19009162 to SY18779102. Only the northernmost 200 metres now survives as an above ground earthwork comprising a low flat bank about 7.5 metres wide and 0.6 metres high in fields behind The Three Horse Shoes. The bank has been much flattened by ploughing; it is recorded by Orlando Hutchinson in the mid 19th century as standing some 3.5 metres high.
Two trenches were dug immediately north of the Inn. Trench 1 showed that the bank (562) had been largely ploughed out, a few remnants survived up to 0.12 metres high beneath the topsoil. Small pieces of charcoal recovered from the buried soil layer (563) beneath returned a calibrated radiocarbon date of 8264-7737BC. This bears no relation to the construction of the bank and is presumed to relate to earlier, Mesolithic activity in the area.
Trench 2 was excavated to examine the ditch which was V-shaped and had originally been about 1.7 metres deep.
Both the buried soil and ditch were sampled for pollen analysis. This showed firstly that there was a certain amount of tree cover in the vicinity, mostly of hazel but also ash, alder, willow and pine and secondly that there appears to have been an opening up of the vegetation cover, with an increase in grassland species in the period immediately prior to the dyke's construction.
Unfortunately, no dateable artefacts were recovered to give an indication as to the date of the dyke's construction. It may be Iron Age, perhaps related to Blackbury Camp to the north or be a post Roman defensive feature.


Russell, C., 2012, Synopsis of Historic Site Records and Field Monument Warden Reports: 1017771 Cross Ridge Dyke Extending North and South of The Three Horse Shoes Inn (Un-published). SDV352409.

A synopsis of Field Monument Warden site visits during the 1980s and early 1990s, a Momuments Protection Programme site visit in 1998 and a further site visit in 2003. In 2003, photographs and visit confirm that the monument remains under permanent pasture in the southern of the two fields to the north of the road, where 'the monument is barely discernible as an earthwork'. The northern field to the north of the road is ploughed annually 'although the upstanding earthwork is still visible it has evidently been gradually degraded by ploughing'. The section to the south of the A3052 is in a regularly ploughed field with class consent and the monument is no longer visible above the ground. See document for full details.


Historic England, 30/07/2015, Cross Ridge Dyke Extending North and South of the Three Horse Shoes Inn (Schedule Document). SDV358871.

Application for Scheduled Monument Consent in respect of proposed works concerning removal of a section of a standing outbuilding and investigative archaeological trenches to provide information on the nature of the underlying archaeological remains.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV120058Article in Serial: Hutchinson, P. O.. 1868. On Hill Fortresses, Sling-Stones, and other Antiquities in South Eastern Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 2 part 2. A5 Hardback. 381.
SDV338169Article in Serial: Hutchinson, P. O.. 1862. On the Hill Fortresses, Tumuli, and some other Antiquities of Eastern Devon. Journal of the British Archaeological Association. 18. Unknown. 55.
SDV341465Article in Monograph: Wall, J. C.. 1906. Ancient Earthworks. Victoria History of the County of Devon. Hardback Volume. 624-5.
SDV342694Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2009. Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West. English Heritage Report. A4 Bound +Digital. 96.
SDV342833Schedule Document: Ministry of Works. 1952. Linear Earthwork North of Three Horse Shoes Inn. The Schedule of Monuments. Foolscap.
SDV342835Article in Serial: Fox, A.. 1952. Twenty-first Report on Ancient Monuments. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 84. A5 Hardback. 241.
SDV342836Article in Serial: Hutchinson, P. O.. 1872. Bronze Celt Found Near Sidmouth. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 5. Unknown. 82-3.
SDV342837Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1889. LXXXIII 5. Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Photocopy.
SDV342838Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1953 - 1980. SY19SE15. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV342841Report - Assessment: Turton, S. D. + Weddell, P. J.. 1992. Archaeological Assessment of SWW Branscombe to Gatcombe Water Main. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. 92.54. A4 Stapled + Digital. 2.
SDV342842Report - Watching Brief: Reed, S. J. + Watts, M.. 1994. Archaeological Recording of SWW Branscombe to Gatcombe Water Main. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. 94.42. A4 Stapled + Digital. 2-3.
SDV342845Report - Watching Brief: Reed, S. J. + Watts, M.. 1994. Archaeological Recording at Cross Dyke Linear Earthwork, Southleigh. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. 94.43. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV342847Un-published: Salvatore, J. P.. 1997. Cross Ridge Dyke at South Horse Shoes Inn. Monument Protection Programme. Archaeological Item Dataset.. Digital. 144387.
SDV342851Schedule Document: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 1998. Cross Ridge Dyke Extending North and South of The Three Horse Shoes Inn. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV342852Worksheet: Earwood, C.. Linear Earthwork - Southleigh near The Three Horse Shoes. Devon County Sites and Monuments Register. A4 Stapled.
SDV342854Worksheet: Unknown. Flint Finds. Devon Committee for Rescue Archaeology Register. Worksheet.
SDV342855Worksheet: Unknown. 1976. Flint Tools. Devon Committee for Rescue Archaeology Register. Worksheet.
SDV344030Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2010. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital). [Mapped feature: #67182 ]
SDV344777Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2010. Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West. English Heritage Report. Digital. 87.
SDV345608Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1982. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1982. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV345664Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1986. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1986. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV345762Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1983. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1983. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV347527Report - non-specific: Torrance, J.. 2007. Raddis Lane: Cross-dyke and Chapel. A4 Stapled. 1-6.
SDV351568Archive - Survey: Exeter Archaeology. 2003-2004. East Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Archaeological Survey. East Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Archaeological Survey. Digital + Mixed Archive Material. 425.
SDV351756Article in Serial: Quinnell, H. + Reed, S.. 2012. Archaeology and the Branscombe to Gatcombe Water Pipeline, East Devon. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 70. Paperback Volume. 87-105.
SDV352409Un-published: Russell, C.. 2012. Synopsis of Historic Site Records and Field Monument Warden Reports: 1017771 Cross Ridge Dyke Extending North and South of The Three Horse Shoes Inn. Digital.
SDV355280Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2011. Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West. english Heritage. Digital. 89.
SDV358871Schedule Document: Historic England. 30/07/2015. Cross Ridge Dyke Extending North and South of the Three Horse Shoes Inn. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. Digital.
SDV359334Report - Evaluation: Passmore, A. + Pears, B.. 08/2015. Land at the Three Horseshoes Inn, Southleigh, near Branscombe, Devon. AC Archaeology. ACD1147/2/0. Digital.

Associated Monuments

MDV10779Related to: FINDSPOT in the Parish of Branscombe, Southleigh (Find Spot)
MDV54935Related to: Flint Scatter from Cross Dyke, Southleigh (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV6894 - Evaluation, Land at the Three Horseshoes Inn, Southleigh, near Branscombe, Devon (Ref: ACD1147/2/0)

Date Last Edited:Jul 19 2018 1:43PM