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HER Number:MDV113064
Name:Former Farms and Access Roads, Poltimore Park

Summary

The location of two former farmsteads and associated access roads or tracks of possible medieval to 19th century date, were visible on aerial photographs of the 1940s onwards and digital images derived from lidar data as earthwork ditches or hollows and low banks in Poltimore Deer Park. The earthwork banks appear to have been levelled but sub-surface features might survive in-situ.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 968 959
Map Sheet:SX99NE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishPoltimore
DistrictEast Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishPOLTIMORE

Protected Status: none recorded

Other References/Statuses: none recorded

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • FARMSTEAD (Early Medieval to XIX - 1066 AD to 1880 AD (Between))
  • HOLLOW WAY (Early Medieval to XIX - 1066 AD to 1880 AD (Between))
  • ROAD (Early Medieval to XIX - 1066 AD to 1880 AD (Between))

Full description

Devon County Council, 1838-1848, Tithe Mosaic, approximately 1838-1848 (Cartographic). SDV349431.





Anomlay group 48, 49, 71, and possibly 39 and 53 are interpreted as former trackways or field boundaries.



Groups 10, 13, 14, 56, 68, 69 and possibly 29 are interrpeted as former field boundaries seen on historic mapping. To add to this, Groups 6, 8, 9, 32, 51, 52, 76, 78, 79 are forwarded as being more ephemeral boundaries of exisiting systems or alternavely, a different configuration pre-dating the archival maps.

Anomaly Group 21 coincides with an apparent area of hardcore dump and levelling visible on current Google Maps Satellite Imagery.

Linear Groups 4, 28, 36, 54, 55, and 62 are interpreted as possible field drains.

Groups 7, 19, 27, 37, 38, 72, 77 remain more ambiguous possibly of natural or human origin.

Also common across the survey areas are small, irregular-shaped areas of positive magnetism, which may be anthropogenic or natural in origin. Fitting in this category are Groups 11, 12, 24, 40, 44, 42, 58. Of special note is Group 25 which is a group of very strong, positive, fingerlik segments coverage a large area, which may again be of human or natural origin. Less common are small irregular shaped areas of negative response, but with similarly challenging interpretation. Fitting in this category are Groups 41, 46, 66 and 70.

Groups 73 and 74 are interleaved sets of negative and positive parallels respectively which are of uncertain interpretation but whose form perhaps suggest ridge-and-furrow cultivation or terracing.

Spread across the Survey Area are spikes or dipoles in the dataset commonly the results of a buried ferrous object usually debris of farming practice. In this category are Groups 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 31, 26, 30, 67 and 75. Of note amongst these are Groups 15,16,17,18 and 20 which have a linearity to their patterning.

Ordnance Survey, 1880-1899, First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map (Cartographic). SDV336179.

The earthworks correspond in part with depicted tree planting.

Royal Air Force, 1946, RAF/CPE/UK/1823, RAF/CPE/UK/1823 RS 4072-4073 04-NOV-1946 (Aerial Photograph). SDV354994.

Earthwork hollows were visible within which parallel earthwork ditches and banks could be seen. Map object based partly on this source.

Fairy Surveys Ltd, 1964, FSL/6412 V, FSL/6412 V 1113-1114 07-FEB-1964 (Aerial Photograph). SDV357115.

Two parallel earthwork banks were visible.

Ordnance Survey, 1966, OS/66185 V, OS/66185 V 341-342 22-JUL-1966 (Aerial Photograph). SDV357577.

The route of two parallel earthwork banks were visible as cropmarks.

Environment Agency, 1998-2014, LiDAR DTM data (1m resolution), LIDAR SX9695, SX9696, SX9795, SX9796 Environment Agency DTM 01-JAN-1998 to 30-SEP-2014 (Cartographic). SDV359177.

Extensive former tracks, roads or hollow ways were visible as broad but shallow earthwork ditches or hollows. Map object based partly on this source.

Hegarty, C. + Knight, S. + Sims, R., 2014-2015, East and Mid Devon River Catchments National Mapping Programme Project (Interpretation). SDV356883.

The location of two former farmsteads and associated access roads or tracks of possible medieval to 19th century date, were visible on aerial photographs of the 1940s onwards and digital images derived from lidar data as earthwork ditches or hollows and low banks in Poltimore Deer Park.
The earthworks correspond closely with roads or track as depicted on the Tithe Map for Poltimore that probably provided access to the former farmsteads or settlements of Bargain and Pitt, both listed in the Tithe Apportionments as being owned by Lord Poltimore. Narrow and parallel earthwork banks approximately 6 metres apart, located at circa SX970959, were probably were the remains of roadside hedge banks.
The settlements and roads are not depicted on the Ordnance Survey 25 inch First Edition map and were probably therefore cleared during landscaping to enlarge the parkland at Poltimore House between the 1840s and 1880s. The depiction of tree planting on the OS First Edition map supports the interpretation that much of the earlier hedgerow trees were retained as parkland features. An additional hollow way or road not depicted on the Tithe Map was also visible as an earthwork continuing to the north-east of the former Bargain Farm, which was probably removed during an earlier phase of emparkment.
The earthwork banks remained visible as earthworks on aerial phototgraphs of 1966 but have since been levelled. The routes of the former roads and sites of the farmsteads remain visible on digital images derived from lidar data as earthwork hollow ways and platforms or hollows.

Edwards, M., 2019, Pinhoe Phase 3, Devon: Geophysical Survey (Report - Survey). SDV363558.

Substrata undertook geophysical survey in advance of a planning application for an area at Poltimore, Pinhoe. Seventy nine anomaly groups were detected by the survey of which seventy seven may represent buried archaeology. This includes possible ring-ditches, trackways, field boundaries, the positions of former farm buildings as well as agricultural features.

Anomaly Group 71 aligns spatially with the trackway heading north from the former Pit Farm, and is therefore remnants of this track surface or accompanying ditches or fenceline.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV336179Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1880-1899. First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map. First Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV349431Cartographic: Devon County Council. 1838-1848. Tithe Mosaic, approximately 1838-1848. Digitised Tithe Map. Digital.
SDV354994Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 1946. RAF/CPE/UK/1823. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). RAF/CPE/UK/1823 RS 4072-4073 04-NOV-1946.
SDV356883Interpretation: Hegarty, C. + Knight, S. + Sims, R.. 2014-2015. East and Mid Devon River Catchments National Mapping Programme Project. AC Archaeology Report. Digital.
SDV357115Aerial Photograph: Fairy Surveys Ltd. 1964. FSL/6412 V. Fairy Surveys Ltd aerial photograph. Photograph (Paper). FSL/6412 V 1113-1114 07-FEB-1964. [Mapped feature: #72405 ]
SDV357577Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1966. OS/66185 V. Ordnance Survey. Photograph (Paper). OS/66185 V 341-342 22-JUL-1966.
SDV359177Cartographic: Environment Agency. 1998-2014. LiDAR DTM data (1m resolution). Environment Agency LiDAR data. Digital. LIDAR SX9695, SX9696, SX9795, SX9796 Environment Agency DTM 01-JAN-1998 to 30-SEP-2014.

Associated Monuments

MDV115232Related to: Bargains Farm, Poltimore (Monument)
MDV115233Related to: Pitt Farm, Poltimore (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV6530 - The East and Mid-Devon Rivers Catchment NMP project (Ref: ACD613)
  • EDV8246 - Geophysical Survey: Pinhoe Phase 3 (Ref: 1902PIN-R-1)

Date Last Edited:Feb 26 2020 1:11PM