HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Devon & Dartmoor HER Result
Devon & Dartmoor HERPrintable version | About Devon & Dartmoor HER | Visit Devon & Dartmoor HER online...

See important guidance on the use of this record.

If you have any comments or new information about this record, please email us.


HER Number:MDV11884
Name:Richmond Dock, Appledore

Summary

Dry dock, built in the mid 19th century and used for ship building until the mid 20th century

Location

Grid Reference:SS 464 303
Map Sheet:SS43SE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishNortham
DistrictTorridge
Ecclesiastical ParishNORTHAM

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SS43SE/29
  • Old Listed Building Ref (II*): 352081
  • Unknown Reference: SS43SE 16

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • DRY DOCK (XIX to XX - 1856 AD to 2000 AD (Between))

Full description

Unknown, 1852, Untitled Source (Article in Serial). SDV336439.


Ordnance Survey, 1938, 12SE. Revision of 1903 with additions in 1938. Provisional Edition (Cartographic). SDV335646.


Unknown, 1945 - 1969, Richmond Dry Dock (Aerial Photograph). SDV348661.


Greenhill, B., 1949, Shipbuilding at Appledore, 345 (Article in Serial). SDV336437.

After WWI Richmond Dock became one concern with 'New Quay' and 'Iron Yard'.


Minchinton, W. E., 1973, Industrial Archaeology in Devon, 11 (Monograph). SDV7016.

Richmond dry dock, Appledore, was built in 1850-6.


Farr, G. E., 1976, Untitled Source, 16 (Article in Serial). SDV336442.


Beara, J., 1976, Untitled Source, 33 (Monograph). SDV336440.


Unknown, 1976 - 1984, Development Control Consultations (Un-published). SDV346248.

Visited 1988 by Pam Egeland. Photos show crane and dry dock features still in-situ. Other details: Photos 875/2a-19a.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1978 - 1980, SS43SE16 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV336438.


Beacham, P. M., 1983 - 2005, Bideford District Plan. Statement by P. M. Beacham, Senior Planning Officer (Conservation), Devon County Council (Un-published). SDV348664.

The construction of Richmond Dock in 1856 was significant for the maritime history of South West England as a whole. The shipbuilding industry was flourishing in the Torridge estuary by at least the 16th century, but it was the expansion of North American trade in the 19th century that was of the greatest sidnificance for Appledore. Richmond Dock was built to make Appledore the centre of William Yeo's business empire.
It is huge in the context of its time. Three hundred and thirty feet long, this impressive feat of 19th century engineering could take four of Yeo's smallest ships at once. To construct it, the waterfront of Appledore was dramatically altered between the old settlement of Appldeore and the 18th century New Quay area, with the head of the dry dock cut into the head of the old inlet separating the two existing settlements. The strand was extended, new access roads to the foreshore constructed, and a large enclosure of the foreshore accomplished in order to construct the south wall. Apart from the dry dock, there were the associated buildings, including a foundry and sail lofts. Other details: Sections 9-13.


Griffith, F. M., 1987, DAP/IT, 9-12 (Aerial Photograph). SDV7186.


Griffith, F. M., 1987, DAP/IU, 1-2 (Aerial Photograph). SDV336443.


Department of Environment, 1987, Northam (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV342734.

Dry-dock. Dated 1856. Dressed stone rubble revetment walls with a pronounced concave batter, stepped out at 2 stages at the top. The inner end is rounded on plan and there are 20th century lock gates at the seaward end. At intervals on the sides and at the inner end there are integral flights of steps. The floor of the dock is now concrete and there is a 20th century gantry above. Other details: LBS 352081.


Department of Environment, 1987, Northam (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV342735.

Upgraded from II to II*.


Griffith, F. M., 1988, Devon's Past. An Aerial View, 117 (Monograph). SDV64198.

Richmond Dock, built in 1856 and said to have been the largest dry dock in all the Bristol Channel ports at that time and used for the finishing of ships rough-built on Prince Edward Island. Richmond shipyard took its name from the North American focus of the Yeo family's trade - Richmond Bay on Prince Edward Island.


Dick, A. M., 1994, Richmond Dock, 35-37 (Ground Photograph). SDV342732.

Slides and photograph in Northam parish file.


Craig, R. et al, 1994, Some aspects of the business of Devon shipping in the 19th century, 103 (Article in Monograph). SDV336441.


Collings, A. G., 1995, Archaeological Assessment of NRA Appledore Tidal Defence Scheme, 2,5 (Report - Assessment). SDV17989.

In 1852 the shipyard on the site of Richmond Dock was bought by William Yeo. It was described as "the most desirable property in Appledore" and "capable of very great improvement" (see Exeter Flying Post). Yeo improved & enlarged it, allegedly appropriating neighbouring property, almshouses & common mooring rights. Work took 4 years, involving reclamation & widening of Myrtle Street & Marine Parade. Associated buildings such as foundry, smith's' & blockmaking shops, sail lofts & mast houses were added. Purchased by Robert Cock in 1882. His sons converted it to build steel ships, but were forced out of business in 1932, when the yard was taken over by Harris & Sons, whose speciality had been building wooden vessels in the New Quay yards to the south (see Farr). Under them emphasis shifted from building to repairing, but war brought a renaissance in building wooden minesweepers & motor torpedo boats. The boundary wall along north side was examined by Exeter Archaeology in 1995 and appears to be in its original form. There are a series of blocked openings at the west end, the function of which is unclear. The yard was closed following construction of a covered shipyard at Bidna. The last construction project was that of components for the new Torridge Bridge.


Unknown, 1996, Richmond Dock (Ground Photograph). SDV348659.

Photographs showing gantry crane in situ.


Unknown, 2003, Appledore 2003. A Conservation Area Appraisal (Draft) (Report - non-specific). SDV344651.


O'Leary, G., 2005, Untitled Source (Correspondence). SDV348662.

The mobile electric gantry crane was demolished on 28th June 2004. The electric capstans, which were an integral part of the equipement for opening and closing the dock gates, have also been removed.


Exeter Archaeology, 2006, Archaeological Assessment of the Appledore Fish Dock, Appledore, Northam, 6 (Report - Assessment). SDV338648.

Richmond Dock was constructed in 1856 by William Yeo partly on the site of Benson's Quay. After World War II the dock was worked in conjunction with New Quay Yard and Iron Yard. Other details: Site 12.


English Heritage, 2006, Buildings at Risk: The Register 2006, 71 (Report - non-specific). SDV336311.

Richmond Dock in Appledore was undergoing slow decay in 2006 with no solution agreed.


Exeter Archaeology, 2007, Archaeological Assessment of Richmond Dock, Appledore, Devon (Report - Assessment). SDV351297.

Constructed by William Yeo between 1852 and 1856, at which time it was the largest dry dock in the Bristol Channel, where it was predominantly used for finishing partly-built vessels that had sailed across from the Atlantic. It went into decline in the first part of the 20th century, but during World War Two wooden minesweepers and motor torpedo boats were constructed there. The site is now derelict, although the dry dock itself is largely intact and in generally good condition.
Predominantly of sandstone in a lime mortar matrix, with the main body of the dock constructed in a single phase. The upper edge has been enhanced and remodelled in concrete. The curved western end is heavily vegetated, but a break in build is visible, suggesting that this end of the dock has been remodelled. At the eastern end, beyond two, apparently serviceable steel gates, the entrance appears to have been extended. Dressed limestone has been employed on the northern side of the entrance. Concrete covers the extension of the southern elevation.
Much of the metal architecture associated with the dry dock, such as bollards and pulley mounts, survive. The steel rails for the travelling crane, now removed, are also present.


Digby, R., 2007, Draft Statement of Options for Richmond Dock, Appledore (Un-published). SDV355524.


Burton, N., 2007, Richmond Dock, Appledore: Conservation Plan (Un-published). SDV355526.

The dock, constructed in the mid 1850s, occupies a prominent position in the village of Appledore, and remained in use until the early 1980s. Several proposals for new residential developments on the northern part of the dockyard site have been submitted, but none has been realised. The conservation plan has been produced to inform future development of the Grade II* listed structure.


White, B., 2008, War and the Home Front: Devon in the First World War, 1914-1918, 11, 306 (Post-Graduate Thesis). SDV356177.

During the First World War the royal dockyards held a monopoly on naval repairs, which required specialized facilities and a highly skilled labour force that was largely protected against conscription when it was introduced in 1916. When workloads exceeded manageable levels in the south, repairs were transferred to the Appledore dockyard, temporarily reviving the industry that otherwise
suffered gradual decline throughout the second half of the nineteenth century.


English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West, 113 (Report - non-specific). SDV342694.

Dry dock,1856. It is said to be the largest dry dock in the Bristol Channel at the time it was built. Now vacant and in fair to poor condition, the dock has not seen significant maintenance in recent years. Its condition is being monitored. Redevelopment proposals under consideration for adjacent site will entail its repair. Other details: Photograph.


English Heritage, 2009, Northam (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV336444.

Richmond Dock. Listed 12/02/1987 Grade II. Amended to II* 16/04/1987. Dry-dock. 1856. Dressed stone rubble revetment walls with a pronounced concave batter, stepped out at 2 stages at the top. The inner end is rounded on plan and there are C20 lock gates at the seaward end. At intervals on the sides and at the inner end there are integral flights of steps. The floor of the dock is now concrete and there is a C20 gantry above.
Timber was imported from North America in the early C19 when sources of supply from the Baltic ports were affected by the Napoleonic Wars. This trade gradually developed into shipbuilding by James Yeo whereby ships were constructed on Prince Edward Island and sailed over to the Torridge estuary for fitting out. About 55 ships from Prince Edward Island were finished here in 1843 to 1853, but these ships were actually fitted out on the fare-shore. In 1849-50 James Yeo's son William decided to build a dry-dock at Richmond Yard, then a small creek and the dock was built in 1856. It is said to have been the largest dry-dock in the Bristol Channel at the time.
Sources: 1. B Greenhill, 'West Country men in Prince Edward's Isle'. 2. John Barn 'Appledore Handmaid of the Sea' 3. North Devon Museum Trust Handbook No.2 4. Peter Beacham, Devon County Council. Other details: LBS No 352081.


English Heritage, 2010, Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West, 105 (Report - non-specific). SDV344777.


Guegan, M., 2011, Captain Griffith's Yacht, 20 (Article in Serial). SDV352275.


English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West, 110 (Report - non-specific). SDV355280.

Appeal into refusal for damaging development adjacent to site June 2011. Fair condition. Priority C (slow decay; no solution agreed).


Sturkey, G. J., circa 1998, Boundary Wall of Richmond Dock (Ground Photograph). SDV357583.


Unknown, Unknown, Kittawake in Richmond Dry Dock (Ground Photograph). SDV348660.

Photo showning two steel-built vessels in dry dock, with three-storey stone building to south.


Devon County Council, Unknown, Old and New Ship-Yards at Appledore, 120 (Ground Photograph). SDV357584.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV17989Report - Assessment: Collings, A. G.. 1995. Archaeological Assessment of NRA Appledore Tidal Defence Scheme. Exeter Archaeology Report. 95.20. A4 Stapled + Digital. 2,5.
SDV335646Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1938. 12SE. Revision of 1903 with additions in 1938. Provisional Edition. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 6 inch Map. Map (Paper).
SDV336311Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2006. Buildings at Risk: The Register 2006. English Heritage Report. A4 Bound. 71.
SDV336437Article in Serial: Greenhill, B.. 1949. Shipbuilding at Appledore. The Mariner's Mirror. 35. Unknown. 345.
SDV336438Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1978 - 1980. SS43SE16. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV336439Article in Serial: Unknown. 1852. Exeter Flying Post. 1E. Unknown.
SDV336440Monograph: Beara, J.. 1976. Appledore, Handmaid of the Sea. Unknown. 33.
SDV336441Article in Monograph: Craig, R. et al. 1994. Some aspects of the business of Devon shipping in the 19th century. The New Maritime History of Devon. Unknown. 103.
SDV336442Article in Serial: Farr, G. E.. 1976. National Maritime Museum Maritime Monographs and Reports. 22. Unknown. 16.
SDV336443Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1987. DAP/IU. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 1-2.
SDV336444List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: English Heritage. 2009. Northam. Historic Houses Register. Website.
SDV338648Report - Assessment: Exeter Archaeology. 2006. Archaeological Assessment of the Appledore Fish Dock, Appledore, Northam. Exeter Archaeology Report. 06.103. A4 Stapled + Digital. 6.
SDV342694Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2009. Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West. English Heritage Report. A4 Bound +Digital. 113.
SDV342732Ground Photograph: Dick, A. M.. 1994. Richmond Dock. Slide + Digital. 35-37.
SDV342734List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1987. Northam. Amendment to List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interes. A4 Single Sheet.
SDV342735List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1987. Northam. Amendment to List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interes. A4 Single Sheet.
SDV344651Report - non-specific: Unknown. 2003. Appledore 2003. A Conservation Area Appraisal (Draft). Torridge District Council Planning Guidance. A5 Stapled.
SDV344777Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2010. Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West. English Heritage Report. Digital. 105.
SDV346248Un-published: Unknown. 1976 - 1984. Development Control Consultations. Devon County Council Conservation Section Collection. A4 Unbound.
SDV348659Ground Photograph: Unknown. 1996. Richmond Dock. Photocopy + Digital.
SDV348660Ground Photograph: Unknown. Unknown. Kittawake in Richmond Dry Dock. Photograph (Digital).
SDV348661Aerial Photograph: Unknown. 1945 - 1969. Richmond Dry Dock. Photocopy + Digital.
SDV348662Correspondence: O'Leary, G.. 2005. Letter from North Devon Museum Trust. Letter + Digital.
SDV348664Un-published: Beacham, P. M.. 1983 - 2005. Bideford District Plan. Statement by P. M. Beacham, Senior Planning Officer (Conservation), Devon County Council. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV351297Report - Assessment: Exeter Archaeology. 2007. Archaeological Assessment of Richmond Dock, Appledore, Devon. Exeter Archaeology Report. 07.41. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV352275Article in Serial: Guegan, M.. 2011. Captain Griffith's Yacht. North Devon Heritage. 22. A5 Paperback. 20.
SDV355280Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2011. Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West. english Heritage. Digital. 110.
SDV355524Un-published: Digby, R.. 2007. Draft Statement of Options for Richmond Dock, Appledore. C0455/002/DOC. Digital.
SDV355526Un-published: Burton, N.. 2007. Richmond Dock, Appledore: Conservation Plan. Digital.
SDV356177Post-Graduate Thesis: White, B.. 2008. War and the Home Front: Devon in the First World War, 1914-1918. McMaster University. Digital. 11, 306.
SDV357583Ground Photograph: Sturkey, G. J.. circa 1998. Boundary Wall of Richmond Dock. Photograph (Paper) + Digital.
SDV357584Ground Photograph: Devon County Council. Unknown. Old and New Ship-Yards at Appledore. Devon County Council Conservation Section Collection. Photograph (Paper) + Digital. 120.
SDV64198Monograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1988. Devon's Past. An Aerial View. Devon's Past. An Aerial View. Paperback Volume. 117.
SDV7016Monograph: Minchinton, W. E.. 1973. Industrial Archaeology in Devon. Industrial Archaeology in Devon. Paperback Volume. 11.
SDV7186Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1987. DAP/IT. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 9-12.

Associated Monuments

MDV112081Part of: Shipyard, Marine Parade, Appledore (Monument)
MDV11885Related to: Appledore, Benson's New Quay (Monument)
MDV43301Related to: Middle Dock, Appledore (Monument)
MDV43300Related to: New Quay Shipyard (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV4241 - Appledore Fish Dock, Northam

Date Last Edited:May 1 2015 1:16PM