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HER Number:MDV120667
Name:Kennaway Tunnel, Dawlish

Summary

Kennaway Tunnel was originally constructed in 1846, one of a series of tunnels on the South Devon Railway between Dawlish and Teignmouth. The portals were originally faced in stone, as shown on contemporary watercolours. However, these were refaced in brick when the tunnel was widened between 1902 and 1905.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 962 763
Map Sheet:SX97NE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishDawlish
DistrictTeignbridge
Ecclesiastical ParishDAWLISH

Protected Status: none recorded

Other References/Statuses: none recorded

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • RAILWAY TUNNEL (Built, XIX to XX - 1846 AD to 1905 AD (Between))

Full description

Ordnance Survey, 1880-1899, First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map (Cartographic). SDV336179.

Kennaway Tunnel marked on the Great Western Railway.


Butler, J., 2000, Travels in Victorian Devon, 3 (Monograph). SDV360682.

Sketch dated 2nd October 1847 of the eastern entrance to the Kennaway Tunnel on the South Devon Atmospheric Railway at Dawlish. The sketch shows the cast iron pipe between the rails.


Garnsworthy, P., 2013, Brunel's Atmostpheric Railway, 48-51 (Monograph). SDV360708.

Kennaway Tunnel is shown on a series of watercolours by William Dawson of Brunel's Atmospheric Railway shortly after its construction in the 1840s.


Historic England, 2017, Kennaway Tunnel Portal, Footbridge adjacent to Tunnel Portal, Marine Parade Sea Wall, Colonnade Bridge and Colonnade Footbridge, Dawlish, Devon (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV360803.

Notification that Historic England have received an application for a Certificate of Immunity for a number of structures including Kennaway Tunnel portal.


Historic England, 2017, Structures, to the south of Station Road, Dawlish (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV360680.

Historic England has been asked to assess a number of structures on the railway line between Dawlish and Teignmouth, Devon for listing through a request for a Certificate of Immunity (COI) from Listing. They have completed their initial assessment upon which they will base their recommendation.
Kennaway Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels constructed when the South Devon Railway opened in 1846. The original portals were faced in stone, but when this part of the line was made into a double track between 1902 and 1905, the tunnel was widened and its eastern portal was refaced in engineering brick.
A railway tunnel portal, first opened in 1846, widened and refaced between 1902 and 1905.
MATERIAL: engineering brick.
DESCRIPTION: a tunnel portal facing north-east, comprising a large segmental brick arch and a return wall to the south. The portal is topped by parapet with a dentil course and a stone wall topped by metal railings. To the north, built against the cliff face, is a brick-faced wing wall with a supporting arch.


Historic England, 2018, Kennaway Tunnel West Portal (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV361726.

Notification that having considered the architectural and historic interest of the west portal it is considered that the criteria for listing are not fulfilled. It is recommended, therefore, that a Certificate of Immunity (COI) be issued for the portal.
The South Devon Railway was first laid out in 1846 and designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel during the pioneering phase of railway development in Britain. Kennaway Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels along this line, and some of the original tunnel portals are evident in William Dawson’s 1840s illustrations of Brunel’s Atmospheric Railway. In the early C20 all of the tunnels were widened in order to allow for a second track and as part of this work the west portal of Kennaway Tunnel was entirely rebuilt.
The portal is of a plain design and is constructed of engineering brick. The east portal at the opposite end of the tunnel (subject to a separate assessment) has also been entirely rebuilt in engineering brick but in a slightly different style. Both portals are late in date in the context of railway structures, and their architecture does not compare well with other contemporary examples, such as the classically-styled, late-C19/ early-C20 Chipping Sodbury West and East Portals in South Gloucestershire (both Grade II; 1409491 and 1409492). These utilise an interesting combination of engineering brick and sandstone and group well with a series of decorative ventilation shafts (Grade II, 1409630) that run along the 2.5 mile tunnel.
Kennaway Tunnel West Portal has strong local historic interest as a feature associated with this early railway line which was established by Brunel, and also in reflecting the continuing improvements made on this prominent coastal railway route. However, given the late date of the structure and its lack of architectural distinction, it lacks special architectural or historic interest necessary to merit listing.
REASONS FOR DESIGNATION DECISION
It is recommended that a Certificate of Immunity from Listing should be issued for Kennaway Tunnel West Portal for the following principal reasons:
Architectural interest:
* the portal is an architecturally-modest structure in the context of the national rail network and its late date;
* it does not demonstrate sufficient technological interest or innovation in engineering terms.
Historic interest:
* it is situated on the former South Devon Railway which was first established in 1846 and designed by Brunel. However, this association is not sufficiently strong to outweigh the lack of architectural and
technological interest.
Group value:
* it does not form a group with other listed transport structures.
See report for full details.


Historic England, 2018, Kennaway Tunnel West Portal, Dawlish, Devon (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV361264.

Confirmation that the west portal has been issued with a Certificate of Immunity from listing for five years.


Ordnance Survey, 2018, MasterMap 2018 (Cartographic). SDV360652.

Tunnel marked.


Historic England, 2018, Parsons Tunnel to Kennaway Tunnel (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV360677.

Notification of application for a Certificate of Immunity for structures and features on the railway line from Parsons Tunnel to Kennaway Tunnel, including sea walls, breakwaters and tunnel portals


Historic England, 2018, Railway Structures Between Kennaway Tunnel East Portal and Dawlish Railway Station, Marine Parade, Dawlish (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV361086.

Notification that following a recommendation from Historic England, the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport has decided not to list the railway structures between Kennaway Tunnel East Portal and Dawlish Railway Station but is minded to issue a Certificate of Immunity from Listing (COI).
The South Devon Railway was first laid out in 1846 by Isambard Kingdom Brunel during the pioneering phase of railway development in Britain. The section of line between Dawlish Railway Station and Kennaway Tunnel included a length of sea wall, with a viaduct supported by a classical-style colonnade at one end and a tunnel with a rusticated-stone portal at the other, as is evident in Williams Dawson’s 1846 illustrations of the section of the railway between Dawlish to Teignmouth. However, most of these structures, which were part of Brunel’s original design,have been either completely rebuilt or, as in the case of the sea wall, altered and obscured by the addition of a later structure. In the early C20 changes to this part of the line were made as part of the widening the railway in order to add a second track. Subsequent repairs and alterations have occurred due to damage caused by sea erosion and to provide pedestrian access between the town and the beach front. Cumulatively, these changes have eroded the cohesion of Brunel’s original design for these structures.
The MARINE PARADE SEA WALL was built in front of Brunel's original sea wall in the early C20. During its construction some of the distinctive limestone parapet of the earlier wall was removed to below the level of the current track bed. Although fabric from the 1840s structure is likely to survive underneath track bed and behind the later wall, it has been completely obscured and the wall's character and extent of survival cannot be established. The rubble-stone facing of the later wall is contrasted by rough-hewn capstones. It has, however, been subject to incremental repairs including the replacement of some capstones and parts of the wall itself in concrete. Although the wall is a prominent feature on the sea front, it has a relatively plain battered design and, as a late example of a retaining sea wall which lacks any technological interest, it is not considered to be of special architectural or historic interest.
KENNAWAY TUNNEL EAST PORTAL was rebuilt in the early C20. With the exception of some architectural decoration to the parapet, the portal is constructed of standard engineering brick to a plain design. The west portal at the opposite end of the tunnel (subject to a separate assessment) has also been entirely rebuilt in engineering brick in a slightly different style. Both portals are late in date and architecturally do not compare well with other contemporary examples, such as the classically-styled, late-C19/ early-C20 Chipping Sodbury West and East Portals in South Gloucestershire (both Grade II; 1409491 and 1409492). These utilise an interesting combination of engineering brick and sandstone, and group well with a series of decorative ventilation shafts (Grade II, 1409630) that run along the 2.5 mile tunnel.
The COLONNADE VIADUCT was rebuilt in the 1930s. The original viaduct included an elegant classical-style colonnade which complimented the contemporary rusticated portal tunnel to the south-west; however both structures have been replaced. Although the mid-C20 viaduct incorporates some detailing such as the rustication to the bridge piers that appears to echo the rustication on the listed railway station, overall the mid-C20 structure does not demonstrate sufficient special architectural or historic interest to merit listing.
The FOOTBRIDGE to the north of KENNAWAY TUNNEL and FOOTBRIDGE adjacent to the COLONNADE VIADUCT date from the C20, and were built to replace earlier structures. Both bridges are late, utilitarian structures and do not merit inclusion on the List.
These various railway structures along Marine Parade, between Dawlish Railway Station and Kennaway Tunnel have undergone piecemeal repairs, rebuilding or have been entirely replaced. They have local historic interest as features associated with this early railway line which was established by Brunel and in reflecting the continuing improvements made on this prominent coastal railway route. However, they do not demonstrate sufficient special architectural or historic interest to merit listing.
CONCLUSION
After examining all the records and other relevant information and having carefully considered the architectural and historic interest of this case, the criteria for listing are not fulfilled. Certificates of Immunity from listing should, therefore, be issued for the various railway structures, including the sea wall, viaduct, footbridges and tunnel portal, along Marine Parade, Dawlish, between Dawlish Railway Station and Kennaway Tunnel.
REASONS FOR DESIGNATION DECISION
It is recommended that the various railway structures along Marine Parade, Dawlish, between Dawlish Railway Station and Kennaway Tunnel, including the sea wall, viaduct, footbridges and Kennaway Tunnel East Portal, be issued with Certificates of Immunity from listing for the following principal reasons:
Architectural interest:
* they are architecturally modest structures in the context of the national rail network;
* they do not demonstrate sufficient technological interest or innovation in terms of their engineering;
* the sea wall has been subject to repairs and alteration; the footbridges are plain and utilitarian structures;
and the viaduct and tunnel portal are C20 replacements.
Historic interest:
* these structures are situated on the former South Devon Railway which was first established in 1846 and designed by Brunel. However, this association is not sufficiently strong to outweigh their lack of architectural and technological interest.
See report for further details.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV336179Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1880-1899. First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map. First Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV360652Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2018. MasterMap 2018. Ordnance Survey Digital Mapping. Digital. [Mapped feature: #79909 ]
SDV360677List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Historic England. 2018. Parsons Tunnel to Kennaway Tunnel. Notification of Application for a Certificate of Immunity. Digital.
SDV360680List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Historic England. 2017. Structures, to the south of Station Road, Dawlish. Notification of Completion of Assessment. Digital.
SDV360682Monograph: Butler, J.. 2000. Travels in Victorian Devon. Travels in Victorian Devon. Hardback Volume. 3.
SDV360708Monograph: Garnsworthy, P.. 2013. Brunel's Atmostpheric Railway. Brunel's Atmostpheric Railway. Paperback Volume. 48-51.
SDV360803List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Historic England. 2017. Kennaway Tunnel Portal, Footbridge adjacent to Tunnel Portal, Marine Parade Sea Wall, Colonnade Bridge and Colonnade Footbridge, Dawlish, Devon. Notification of Application for a Certificate of Immunity. Digital.
SDV361086List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Historic England. 2018. Railway Structures Between Kennaway Tunnel East Portal and Dawlish Railway Station, Marine Parade, Dawlish. Notification of Decision Not to Add Building to List. Digital.
SDV361264List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Historic England. 2018. Kennaway Tunnel West Portal, Dawlish, Devon. Notification of Certificate of Immunity. Digital.
SDV361726List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Historic England. 2018. Kennaway Tunnel West Portal. Notification of Completion of Assessment. Digital.

Associated Monuments: none recorded

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded


Date Last Edited:Feb 25 2019 10:48AM