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HER Number:MDV12344
Name:Killerton Deer Park, Broadclyst

Summary

Deer Park at Killerton House, Broadclyst, developed over several phases. The earliest phase of development may have taken place in the later part of the 16th century. Recorded boundaries vary greatly.

Location

Grid Reference:SS 972 007
Map Sheet:SS90SE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBroadclyst
DistrictEast Devon

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SS90SE/33
  • Old SAM Ref: 29691(PART)

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • DEER PARK (Unknown date)

Full description

Unknown, MIGRATED RECORD - MONUMENT PROTECTION PROGRAMME DATA (Migrated Record). SDV331.

See subsheets (mpp).

National Trust, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV52.

The 1756 killerton estate map shows a deerpark covering over 135 acres to the n of killerton house. In 1785 the deer park was enlarged by including bridge tenement + bastens tenement to the e but reduced in 1810 when another wall was built (nt).

GALLANT, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV943.

A fairly large park at killeton is shown on donn's map of 1765 with the house just outside the park. Also called kilrington by pole in 1635 (gallant).

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97849.

Osa=ss90se16.

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97850.

Whittaker, j. /deer parks and paddocks of england/(1892).

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97851.

Shirley, e. P. /some account of english deerparks/(1867)91,92.

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97852.

Des=mpp/144468.

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97853.

Des=gallant, l. /deer parks/(1986)/manuscript in smr.

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97854.

Des=the national trust/killerton estate archaeological survey: part 1: the park & garden/(2000)55/copy in smr.

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV97855.

Des=hhr:register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in england(devon)/(august 2003).

Shirley, E. P., 1867, Some Account of English Deerparks (Monograph). SDV314505.

Deerpark at killerton house. Recorded boundaries vary greatly (os). Mentioned in lysons (1822) and still extant 1867 (shirley).

Historic England, 2015, Sections of Two Deer Park Pales and a Deer Park Pond at Killerton, Broadclyst, Exeter (Schedule Document). SDV359252.

Application on behalf of the National Trust for proposed works at the above Scheduled Monument. Works will include scrub removal.

Southwest Archaeology, 2016, The Deer Park, Killerton, Broad Clyst, East Devon: Executive Summary (Report - non-specific). SDV361434.

As part of its Management Plan, and following discussions with English Heritage (now Historic England), Scheduled Monument Consent (SMC) was obtained for repairs to the substantial stone-faced deerpark pales that extend from the gardens around Killerton House north across Dolbury Hill. South West Archaeology Ltd. (SWARCH) was engaged to undertake the required archaeological monitoring, and this work was undertaken in two stages, with repairs to the eastern pale undertaken in December 2015 and repairs to the western pale in April 2016. It was understood that the two pales were 19th and 18th century in date respectively, but desk-based work, and in particular the analysis of LiDAR data obtained from the Environment Agency, indicate that the picture is much more complex. As a result, a third report, with some limited additional fieldwork, was commissioned to explore the development of the deerpark and make recommendations for further work. This document summarises the main findings of these three reports.

Much of the landscape work that has taken place at Killerton has focused on the parkland elements and
the development of its polite landscape. In contrast, the deerpark has been rather neglected. One factor
may be the fact that the later deerpark(s) were defined by fences rather than substantial earthworks,
but another is clearly the fact that the deerpark has been undervalued in comparison with the landscape
park.

One of the key realisations of this piece of work is that, and contra Rutherford et al. (2014, 15)
archaeology does not play a relatively minor role in this landscape: as well as the deerpark, Killerton
Park contains a series of important archaeological monuments ranging from the earthworks of a
complex late Prehistoric hillfort, abandoned post-medieval fields, medieval and post-medieval buildings
and farmsteads, holloways, as well as the abortive grand 1770s house. This is a complex landscape
palimpsest where earlier remains survive, often in very good condition, recognised but underappreciated, and with few parallels in lowland Devon. This landscape affords very many
opportunities to further our understanding of the Killerton Estate, which in turn feeds back into
effective management and public engagement.

Wapshott, E. + Webb, P., 2016, The Deer Park, Killerton, Broadclyst, East Devon: Desk-Based Assessment and Walkover Survey (Report - Survey). SDV361433.

This report presents the results of a programme of desk-based research and rapid walkover
assessment undertaken to explore the historical development and significance of the deerpark(s) and
associated enclosure walls (pales) at Killerton House, Broadclyst, Devon.

In contrast to the landscape park, the deer park at Killerton has received relatively little active interest. This programme of research has identified that the deer park is likely to be post-medieval in date, with significant development in the later 18th and early 19th century. The evolution of this deer park is particularly complex, with the entire park shifting from the west side of Dolbury Hill to the east in the early 19th century. The LiDAR analysis indicates this landscape has benefitted from its insulation from active cultivation and upstanding earthworks are very well preserved across most of the park.

The LiDAR analysis has identified significant earthworks across the estate, including the site of an abortive late 18th century grand house, and the shrunken medieval settlement associated with the estate.

This LiDAR survey data also provides a comprehensive, detailed plan depicting not only the existing
buildings, field systems and roads, but also a substantial number of other removed historical,
archaeological and natural features (see Figure 10). Many of these can be related to the historic
maps described above, and provide evidence of the historic development of the parkland and
surrounding landscape. The LiDAR also highlighted the site of an abortive late 18th century grand house, and the shrunken medieval settlement associated with the estate.

Overlaying the historic maps on the Lidar data allowed these features to be matched, enabling the
phased development of the site to be plotted based on the appearance of features on the different
cartographic sources.

The park was created within an earlier agricultural fieldscape, this included a deer park with hunting lodge or house perhaps initiated by Edward Drewe c.1570. The full extent of the park at this stage is unknown but the two 1756 estate maps provide an indication of the extent of the park and deer park. The deer park continued to develop over several phases but by the late 19th century the deer park ceased to function as a commercial concern, and the animals sold or escaped. The embanked deer park pales and fences fell into disuse or were moved.

A rapid walkover survey was carried out in December 2015 that targeted parts of the Killerton deer park pale to determine the physical reality of the elements depicted on historic maps and the features identified on the LiDAR imagery.

The rapid walkover assessment undertaken largely confirms the results of the LiDAR analysis. The two main phases of deer park pale as depicted on the historic estate mapping (mid 18th and early 19th century) are clearly represented by substantial earthworks in the field.

This is a complex landscape palimpsest where earlier remains survive, often in very good condition, recognised but underappreciated, and with few parallels in lowland Devon. This landscape affords very many opportunities to further our understanding of the Killerton Estate, which in turn feeds back into effective management and public engagement.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV314505Monograph: Shirley, E. P.. 1867. Some Account of English Deerparks. Some Account of English Deerparks. Unknown.
SDV331Migrated Record: Unknown. MIGRATED RECORD - MONUMENT PROTECTION PROGRAMME DATA. Monument Protection Programme. Unknown.
SDV359252Schedule Document: Historic England. 2015. Sections of Two Deer Park Pales and a Deer Park Pond at Killerton, Broadclyst, Exeter. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. Digital.
SDV361433Report - Survey: Wapshott, E. + Webb, P.. 2016. The Deer Park, Killerton, Broadclyst, East Devon: Desk-Based Assessment and Walkover Survey. Southwest Archaeology. 160212. Digital. [Mapped feature: #132865 ]
SDV361434Report - non-specific: Southwest Archaeology. 2016. The Deer Park, Killerton, Broad Clyst, East Devon: Executive Summary. Southwest Archaeology. Unknown. Digital.
SDV52Migrated Record: National Trust.
SDV943Migrated Record: GALLANT.
SDV97849Migrated Record:
SDV97850Migrated Record:
SDV97851Migrated Record:
SDV97852Migrated Record:
SDV97853Migrated Record:
SDV97854Migrated Record:
SDV97855Migrated Record:

Associated Monuments

MDV60411Related to: Deer Park Pale at Killerton (Monument)
MDV1312Related to: Dolbury Hillfort, 230 metres North of Killerton House (Monument)
MDV64934Related to: Old road from Columbjohn to the Exeter to Bradninch turnpike (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV8726 - Desk-Based Assessment and Walkover Survey: The Deer Park, Killerton, Broad Clyst, East Devon (Ref: 160212)

Date Last Edited:Sep 28 2021 10:32AM