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HER Number:MDV13502
Name:Smallhanger Waste China Clay Works

Summary

Extensive clay extraction pits were in operation from the 19th century into the mid-20th century on the eastern slopes of Crownhill Down. The late 19th and early-20th evolution and extent of the clayworks is depicted on the Ordnance Survey First and Second edition 25inch maps. Aerial photographs of the 1940s to the early 21st century illustrate the further development, partial destruction and abandonment of the clayworks, and record the current condition of the surviving earthworks.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 575 592
Map Sheet:SX55NE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishSparkwell
DistrictSouth Hams
Ecclesiastical ParishPLYMPTON ST.MARY

Protected Status: none recorded

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX55NE/72

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • CHINA CLAY WORKS (Modern to XXI - 1751 AD to 2016 AD (Between))

Full description

SX55NE/71, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV137291.

Smallhanger waste. Clay extracted from here was processed at the hemerdon and broomage works at galva (sx55ne/71) (harris).

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV137295.

Harris, h. /industrial archaeology of dartmoor/(1968)217.

Untitled Source (Aerial Photograph). SDV137296.

Aph=raf/106g/uk/1190 4251-4252(24/2/1946).

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV137297.

Des=os 25" (1880s).

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV148.

Extensive area of 'clay pits' shown on os 25" (1880s) map to the north of 'smallhanger china clayworks' (os).

RCHM APP 1985, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV26818.

Visible on raf 1946 ap (rchm app 1985).

Royal Air Force, 1946, RAF/106G/UK/1190, RAF/106G/UK/1190 RS 4250-4251 27-FEB-1946 (Aerial Photograph). SDV363067.

Extensive pits, mounds and a range of structures are visible.

Royal Air Force, 1947, RAF/CPE/UK/2105, RAF/CPE/UK/2105 RS 4066-4067 28-MAY-1947 (Aerial Photograph). SDV351151.

Extensive pits, mounds and a range of structures are visible.

Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1980, SX55NE12 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV137259.

The remains of a clay-drying plant including sheds, settling beds and kilns, at Galva, on the slopes of Hemerdon Ball. The clay treated here was obtained from pits at nearby Smallhanger. (Industrial Archaeology of Dartmoor 1968, 217, Harris, H.)

Bluesky International Ltd/Getmapping PLC, 1999-2017, Pan Government Agreement Aerial Photographs, Next Perspectives APGB Imagery SX5759-SX5760 31-MAY-2016 (Aerial Photograph). SDV363087.

Extensive pits, mounds and a range of structures are visible.

NERC, 2013, LiDAR DTM data (1m resolution) Tellus: South Devon to Dartmoor, LIDAR SX5759 Tellus DTM 01-JUL-2013 to 31-AUG-2013 (Cartographic). SDV361514.

Extensive pits, mounds and a range of structures are visible.

Hegarty, C., Knight, S. and Sims, R., 2019-2020, The South Devon Coast to Dartmoor Aerial Investigation and Mapping Survey. Area 2, Avon Valley to Plymouth (AI&M, formerly NMP) (Interpretation). SDV362982.

Extensive pits, mounds and ranges of structures are visible on aerial photographs of the 1940s onwards at Smallhanger Waste, on the eastern edge of Crownhill Down.
The visible earthworks and structures correspond closely with features depicted on the Ordnance Survey Second edition 25inch map, annotated as Smallhanger China Clay Works.
These earthworks and structures correspond closely with, but are an expansion of, and a have effaced some of the claywork features depicted on the Ordnance Survey first edition 25inch map.
The earthworks and structures visible on aerial photographs of 1946 are a further development of the early 20th century clay extraction at Smallhanger Waste, including traces of aqueducts and larger water channels associated with the clay extraction, as well as extensive mounds and finger dumps of spoil.
However, the mid-20th century extraction also extended and modified some of the earlier earthwork features. The earthworks visible on digital images derived from lidar data captured in 2013 are dominated by the early to mid-20th century earthworks.
The early 20th century structures and pits to the south of the complex, centred at circa SX57385894 had been demolished and the site of the buildings destroyed by the expansion of quarrying from the south by 2016.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV137259Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1980. SX55NE12. OSAD Card. Card Index + Digital.
SDV137291Migrated Record: SX55NE/71.
SDV137295Migrated Record:
SDV137296Aerial Photograph:
SDV137297Migrated Record:
SDV148Migrated Record:
SDV26818Migrated Record: RCHM APP 1985.
SDV351151Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 1947. RAF/CPE/UK/2105. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). RAF/CPE/UK/2105 RS 4066-4067 28-MAY-1947.
SDV361514Cartographic: NERC. 2013. LiDAR DTM data (1m resolution) Tellus: South Devon to Dartmoor. Digital. LIDAR SX5759 Tellus DTM 01-JUL-2013 to 31-AUG-2013. [Mapped feature: #118915 ]
SDV362982Interpretation: Hegarty, C., Knight, S. and Sims, R.. 2019-2020. The South Devon Coast to Dartmoor Aerial Investigation and Mapping Survey. Area 2, Avon Valley to Plymouth (AI&M, formerly NMP). Historic England Research Report. Digital.
SDV363067Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 1946. RAF/106G/UK/1190. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). RAF/106G/UK/1190 RS 4250-4251 27-FEB-1946.
SDV363087Aerial Photograph: Bluesky International Ltd/Getmapping PLC. 1999-2017. Pan Government Agreement Aerial Photographs. Aerial Photography for Great Britain Aerial Photographs. Digital. Next Perspectives APGB Imagery SX5759-SX5760 31-MAY-2016.

Associated Monuments: none recorded

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV8098 - The South Devon Coast to Dartmoor Aerial Investigation and Mapping (formerly NMP) Survey, Area 2, Avon Valley to Plymouth (Ref: ACD2040)

Date Last Edited:Oct 28 2020 10:31AM