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HER Number:MDV1613
Name:Motte and Baileys in Burley Wood, Bridestowe

Summary

Earthwork remains of a medieval motte with two baileys presumed to be 11th-12th century in date. The earthworks are shown on the Ordnance Survey First Edition map of the late 19th century late and are partly visible through tree cover on aerial photographs taken in 1947 and 1982 and digital images derived from lidar data captured between 1998-2014.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 497 876
Map Sheet:SX48NE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBridestowe
DistrictWest Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishBRIDESTOWE

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: 438073
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX48NE/6
  • Old SAM County Ref: 411
  • Old SAM Ref: 30350
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division: SX48NE3

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • CASTLE (XI to XII - 1066 AD to 1200 AD (Between))
  • MOTTE AND BAILEY (XI to XII - 1066 AD to 1200 AD (Between))

Full description

National Monuments Record, SX4987 (Aerial Photograph). SDV343840.

Ordnance Survey, 1880-1899, First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map (Cartographic). SDV336179.

'Camp (Remains of)' shown on 19th century map as a circular motte and 'D' shaped bailey to the east.

Wall, J. C., 1906, Ancient Earthworks, 616,618 (Article in Monograph). SDV341465.

Motte and motte ditch with crescent-shaped ditched bailey to north-east. Wall considers this to be of one work with Burley Wood hillfort. Other details: Plan.

Allcroft, A. H., 1908, Earthwork of England, 404 (Monograph). SDV11975.

Other details: Figure 120; plan.

Young, E. H., 1914, Untitled Source, 109 (Monograph). SDV343837.

Norman motte and ditch in perfect condition; the bailey is well preserved.

MacAlpine Woods, R., 1929, List of Scheduled Monuments, Devonshire, 15 (Article in Serial). SDV343833.

Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1950, SX48NE3 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV343839.

This is a small Norman motte with inner and outer baileys, the latter not shown formerly on Ordnance Survey maps. The whole feature stands in dense wood with briar undergrowth. The motte is well preserved although two pits have been dug into the top. The inner bailey is small and crescent shaped with a low bank along the scarp except on the side facing the motte. The outer bailey is larger and has fairly good bank running along scarp except along the scarp adjoining the inner bailey. The ditch outside the outer bailey is confluent with the ditch of the inner bailey on the south side, and with the ditch around the motte on the north side.

No change. Motte and baileys as described above. Site visit 02/01/1973.

Other details: Section.

Renn, D. F., 1959, Mottes. A Classification, 106-112 (Article in Serial). SDV11931.

Considered by Renn to have had a siege relationship with nearby 'large unfinished site' (the hillfort).

Ministry of Works, 1960, Motte and Bailey Castle in Burley Wood (Additional Area - 1963) (Schedule Document). SDV343841.

A small motte and bailey east of Burley Wood Camp. Remains of iron smelting are said to have been found here. Second bailey to east added to scheduled area in 1963. Other details: Monument 411.

Higham, R. A., 1979, The Castles of Medieval Devon, 135-136,250,252,257,260, 293,295-6,298,315,317,321 (Post-Graduate Thesis). SDV336189.

Sunken topped motte with two baileys, the inner one raised and the outer sloping towards the edge of the hill. Distinct from and of a different period than Burley Wood Camp to the west. Probably originated as a campaign castle during the Norman Conquest, though it seems to have continued in use after the initial period. The Manor of Bridstowe, which belonged to Ralph de Pomeroy was extended after the Conquest to include the castle. Other details: Figure 41.

Weston, S., 1982, Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV343831.

Visited by Department of Environment field monument warden in 1981. Site still heavilly wooded. Motte with two baileys. Motte has depression in top. Inner bailey is raised, and outer bailey slopes away steeply to edge of hill.

Griffith, F. M., 1985, DAP/EG, 1 (Aerial Photograph). SDV343829.

Griffith, F. M., 1985, DAP/EH, 3,4,5,5a (Aerial Photograph). SDV343828.

Higham, R. A., 1988, Devon Castles: An Annotated List, 144 (Article in Serial). SDV341278.

Higham, R. A. + Freeman, J. P., 1996, Devon Castles (Draft Text), 3, 7, gazetteer (Monograph). SDV354350.

Castle comprising a motte with two baileys in a high position above the River Lew, close to an Iron Age hillfort, overlooking the route westwards from Okehampton to Cornwall. It is presumed to be of 11th-12th century date although there are no medieval documents referring to a castle at this location. It is likely to have been built during the Norman Conquest of Devon or perhaps in the civil war during Stephen's reign.
The motte has a depression in the summit suggesting the foundations of a building. Another depression on its north-eastern face may reflect the loction of a bridge linking the top of the motte with the bailey. The baileys which lie to the north-east of the motte are defended by a rampart and ditch.

Environment Agency WMS, 1998-2016, LiDAR DTM data JPEG image (1m resolution), LIDAR WMS Environment Agency DTM viewed 04-DEC-2017 (Cartographic). SDV360208.

A series of earthwork banks and ditches are visible.

Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 1999, Motte With Two Baileys and a Multivallate Hillfort at Burley Wood (Schedule Document). SDV343827.

This monument includes a motte with two baileys and an Iron Age hillfort with multiple defences lying juxtaposed on a prominent ridge overlooking the valleys of the River Lew and one of its major tributaries in an area known as Burley Wood. A prominent motte with two baileys to its north-east. The motte is a circular mound 44 metres in diameter and is up to 4 metres high. On the summit are 2 oval depressions. Surrounding the mound is a ditch up to 4 metres wide and 1.2 metres deep. Immediately to the east of the motte is a 'D' shaped bailey. This is enclosed by a rampart which measures up to 8.5 metres wide and 0.9 metres high internally, enclosing an area 36.2 metres by 19.6 metres maximum. This bailey is largely level. Beyond the rampart is a ditch up to 5 metres wide and 1.2 metres deep. To the north and west of the first bailey lies a second outer bailey which is defined by another rampart and outer ditch. The rampart measures 3.2 metres wide and up to 0.3 metres high internally. The ditch measures 4.9 metres wide and is up to 0.8 metres deep. This rampart encloses an area 38 metres by 35 metres wide maximum, although the width decreases to 14.5 metres in the west. This bailey also slopes to the north and east. Beyond the rampart and ditch is a further defensive outer bank which sits on the summit of the steep natural slope. This is up to 3 metres wide and 2.3 metres high externally. Other details: Monument 30350.

Young, A., 2005, Transcriptions from Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project (Cartographic). SDV321540.

Transcriptions of banked features correspond to the grid reference for PRN167254. Map object partly based on this source.

Young, A. & Turner, S., 2005-2006, North Devon/Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project database records, PRN167254 (Interpretation). SDV358473.

The well-recorded motte with inner and outer baileys is partially visible, through tree cover, on aerial photographs (p1&2) and was digitally plotted as part of the National Mapping Programme.
Photograph reference:
1. RAF 3G/TUD/138/5423&4 11-APR-1946
2. NMR NMR SX4987/4 19-APR-1982

English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West, 119 (Report - non-specific). SDV342694.

Generally satisfactory but with minor localised problems. Principal vulnerability plant growth.

Ordnance Survey, 2009, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV341569.

'Motte and Baileys' shown on modern mapping. Map object partly based on this Source.

English Heritage, 2010, Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West, 111 (Report - non-specific). SDV344777.

National Monuments Record, 2011, 438073 (National Monuments Record Database). SDV346411.

A motte with two baileys on a prominent ridge in an area known as Burley Wood. The motte is a circular mound which measures 44 metres in diameter and is up to 4 metres high. On the summit are two roughly oval depressions. Surrounding the mound is a ditch which measures up to 4 metres wide and 1.2 metres deep. Immediately to the west of the motte is a 'D' shaped bailey. This is enclosed by a rampart which measures 36.2 metres long by 19.6 metres wide maximum. This bailey is largely level. Beyond the rampart is a ditch which measures up to 5 metres wide and 1.2 metres deep. To the north and west of the first bailey lies a second outer bailey which is defined by another rampart and outer ditch. The rampart measures 3.2 metres wide and up to 0.3 metres high internally. The ditch measures 4.9 metres wide and is up to 0.8 metres deep. This rampart encloses an area which measures 38 metres long by 35 metres wide maximum, although the width decreases to 14.5 metres in the west. The bailey also slopes to the north and east. Beyond the rampart and ditch is a further defensive outer bank which sits on the summit of the steep natural slope. This measures up to 3 metres wide and 2.3 metres high externally.

English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West, 117 (Report - non-specific). SDV355280.

Generally satisfactory but with significant localised problems. Stable. Principal vulnerability plant growth.

Houghton, P., 2015, An Archaeological and Historical Report on The Upper Tamar Valley including Excavations at Lamerhooe Volume One, 67 (Report - Assessment). SDV363240.

Author states this site represents an example of a site where an Iron Age enclosure was later converted into a motte and bailey castle during the Medieval periods (and suggests a possible parallel for the site at Lamerhooe). Potentially this site shows a continuity of use from the Iron Age through to the Medieval period, occupying a defensive location with good views over the main Okehampton to Launceston road where it crosses the River Lew and over Gaulford Down (an Anglo-Saxon battle site).

Sources / Further Reading

SDV11931Article in Serial: Renn, D. F.. 1959. Mottes. A Classification. Antiquity. 33. Unknown. 106-112.
SDV11975Monograph: Allcroft, A. H.. 1908. Earthwork of England. Earthwork of England. Unknown. 404.
SDV321540Cartographic: Young, A.. 2005. Transcriptions from Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project. Plot of Cropmarks. Digital.
SDV336179Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1880-1899. First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map. First Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV336189Post-Graduate Thesis: Higham, R. A.. 1979. The Castles of Medieval Devon. University of Exeter Thesis. Unknown. 135-136,250,252,257,260, 293,295-6,298,315,317,321.
SDV341278Article in Serial: Higham, R. A.. 1988. Devon Castles: An Annotated List. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 46. Paperback Volume. 144.
SDV341465Article in Monograph: Wall, J. C.. 1906. Ancient Earthworks. Victoria History of the County of Devon. Hardback Volume. 616,618.
SDV341569Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2009. MasterMap. MasterMap. Digital.
SDV342694Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2009. Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West. English Heritage Report. A4 Bound +Digital. 119.
SDV343827Schedule Document: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 1999. Motte With Two Baileys and a Multivallate Hillfort at Burley Wood. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV343828Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1985. DAP/EH. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 3,4,5,5a.
SDV343829Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1985. DAP/EG. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 1.
SDV343831Personal Comment: Weston, S.. 1982.
SDV343833Article in Serial: MacAlpine Woods, R.. 1929. List of Scheduled Monuments, Devonshire. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Exploration Society. I. part 1. Paperback Volume. 15.
SDV343837Monograph: Young, E. H.. 1914. The Devonian Year Book. Unknown. 109.
SDV343839Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1950. SX48NE3. OSAD Card. Card Index + Digital.
SDV343840Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. SX4987. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper).
SDV343841Schedule Document: Ministry of Works. 1960. Motte and Bailey Castle in Burley Wood (Additional Area - 1963). The Schedule of Monuments. Foolscap.
SDV344777Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2010. Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West. English Heritage Report. Digital. 111.
SDV346411National Monuments Record Database: National Monuments Record. 2011. 438073. National Monuments Record Database. Website.
SDV354350Monograph: Higham, R. A. + Freeman, J. P.. 1996. Devon Castles (Draft Text). Devon Castles. A4 Unbound + Digital. 3, 7, gazetteer.
SDV355280Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2011. Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West. english Heritage. Digital. 117.
SDV358473Interpretation: Young, A. & Turner, S.. 2005-2006. North Devon/Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project database records. Cornwall Council Report. Digital. PRN167254.
SDV360208Cartographic: Environment Agency WMS. 1998-2016. LiDAR DTM data JPEG image (1m resolution). Environment Agency LiDAR data. Digital. LIDAR WMS Environment Agency DTM viewed 04-DEC-2017.

Associated Monuments

MDV5628Related to: Burley Wood Hillfort, Bridestowe (Monument)
MDV418Related to: Hembury Castle Hillfort, Buckland Brewer (Monument)
MDV7602Related to: Motte and Bailey within Loddiswell Rings (Monument)
MDV3859Related to: Motte and Bailey, Lamerton (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV7455 - Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme

Date Last Edited:Oct 10 2019 10:32AM