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HER Number:MDV1698
Name:Broadbury Castle Roman Camp, Beaworthy

Summary

Broadbury Castle a rectilinear Roman Camp to the north-east of Castle Cross, Beaworthy.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 483 957
Map Sheet:SX49NE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBeaworthy
DistrictWest Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishBEAWORTHY

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: 438191
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX49NE/3
  • Old SAM County Ref: 94
  • Old SAM Ref: 30331
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division: SX49NE9

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • DEFENDED ENCLOSURE (Roman to Saxon - 43 AD to 1065 AD (Between))

Full description

Royal Air Force, 13/04/1947, RAF/CPE/UK/1995, 2211 (Aerial Photograph). SDV224714.


Polwhele, R., 1793-1806, The History of Devonshire, 186,189 (Monograph). SDV21030.


Woollcombe, H., 1839-1850, Woollcombe Manuscript (Un-published). SDV16214.

Site visited in 1837 and on 31st July 1838. Rectangular enclosure said to be Roman with an entrance in the east side. Single ditch and rampart (18 feet maximum). Circa 266 feet (81.08 metres) by 230 feet (70.1 metres). Plan in manuscript.


Virtue, O. H., 1868, Untitled Source, 350 (Article in Serial). SDV345566.


Ordnance Survey, 1880-1899, First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map (Cartographic). SDV336179.

'Broadbury Castle (Remains of)' shown on 19th century map.


Worth, R. N., 1891, President's Address: Localities of Roman Remains in Devon, 79 (Article in Serial). SDV158810.

Broadbury Castle. Thought to be camp of Roman or Saxon origin situated 274 metres north-east of crossroad where the Okehampton to Holsworthy road crosses the road from Bratton Clovelly to Ashbury. Rectangular earthwork with a single vallum and fosse.


Martin, J. M., 1893, Broadbury and its Ancient Earthworks, 547-9 (Article in Serial). SDV230002.


Rowe, S., 1896, A Perambulation of the Forest of Dartmoor, 228 (Monograph). SDV249697.


Ordnance Survey, 1904 - 1906, Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map (Cartographic). SDV325644.

'Broadbury Castle Roman Camp (Site of)' shown on early 20th century map.


Wall, J. C., 1906, Ancient Earthworks, 602-3 (Article in Monograph). SDV341465.

Before site was levelled in about 1872, it had a ditch circa 25 feet (7.62 metres) wide and a bank over 15 feet (4.57 metres) high. There were four entrances, one in the middle of each side. The sites of two entrances are now visible. Other details: Plan 601.


Martin, J. M., 1914, The Anglian Invasion of Devon, 387 (Article in Serial). SDV345648.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1950, SX49NE9 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV345642.

Broadbury Castle. Roman Camp (Site of). (OS 6inch 1907)

Broadbury (Roman Camp?) (Brailsford, J.W. 1938, card index. Ref Rowe's "Perambulation of Dartmoor" pg. 228)

Broadbury Castle. Shown as a small rectangular earthwork. (OS 2inch 1803-7 No.29E)

Rectangular earthwork of Broadbury Castle is 230 by 260 feet. It has a single vallum and ditch; originally only one entrance on the East. Not certainly Roman but has stronger claims than any other earthwork (in Devon). (Worth, R.N. TDA 23 1891 p.79)

On a hill, to the north of Bratton Clovelly, are the remains of a Roman encampment, called Broadbury Castle, with a rampart and ditch. (Virtue's National Gazetteer (A-E) 1868. P.350)

Broadbury Castle; the simplicity of which inclines me to place it to the account of these times (Roman occupation). The castle, as Dean Milles described it, in 1755, is a rectangular oblong square, encompassed with a single vallum and fosse. The fosse is about 25 feet broad at the top. The area within the vallum, from north to south, is 225 feet; from east to west 186 feet. It has four gates or entrances into it. (Polwhele's History of Devon Vol 1 1797 p.186)

I was much disappointed on my visit to find that the ramparts of the Castle, to which (boyhood) recollection, confirmed by that of others, gave a height of over 15 feet, had been levelled and the fosse filled up, so that there was absolutely nothing to mark the site, save some slight differences in the appearance of the pasturage where the old defences stood. This act of vandalism occurred about 20 years ago (c.1870). (Martin, J. M. TDA 25 1893 p.54-49)

Square camp with each side to a continual point of the compass. There were 4 entrances, on in the middle of each side. Levelled circa 1872. Vallum and fosse may be traced by slight rise and fall in the ground. (VCH Devon 1, p.602-3)

The earthwork stands in a field, now used for pasture, and has not been ploughed over some 40 years now. No finds of any description were made either by landowner or his father, who was the former farmer who levelled the rampart and filled in the ditch in the 19th century. (Site visit, oral, 07/04/1951)

Several trial pits were excavated in 1951 during a site visit. Four pits in total were excavated. The decision was made stop excavation following a period of rain, as the investigator suggested the soil is best excavated after a dry spell. No finds were recovered, several molehills were also excavated. The earth was primarily a dark humus topsoil followed by a stiff yellow clay and odd pieces of sandstone and slate. See summary from investigator:
The results of the trial excavations are disappointing and the complete lack of finds in the pits and also in the molehills suggests only temporary occupation of the site. The plan of the earthwork is certainly Roman in diameter and the apparent brief occupation may suggest a small temporary marching camp construction and used for only a few days in some minor campaign in Devon. (Site visit 10-12/04/1951 and possible other dates)

See cards for full details.


Hoskins, W. G., 1954 - 1955, Devon Parish Notes, 133 (Article in Serial). SDV231757.

The site may have been one of a Roman signal-station similar to those on the North Devon coast.


Ministry of Works, 1957, Broadbury Castle, Roman Camp (Schedule Document). SDV345653.

Broadbury Castle, Roman Camp. A rectilinear earthwork 270 feet (82.3 metres) by 300 feet (91.44 metres) and practically square in appearance. Single bank and ditch 36 feet (10.97 metres) overall, indications of entrances in the centre of the west and east sides. Levelled in 1872 when the bank was alleged to stand 15 feet (4.57 metres) high and was subsequently ploughed. Situated on the highest point of Broadbury Down commanding extensive views in all directions. A fine military position and most likely a genuine Roman fortified post. Other details: Monument 94.


Cambridge University, 1962, CUC/AFD, 10-11 (Aerial Photograph). SDV345649.


Donn, B., 1965, A Map of the County of Devon, 1765 (Reprint) (Monograph). SDV336413.

Shown on Donn's 18th century map.


Cambridge University, 1966, CUC/ANT, 40-43 (Aerial Photograph). SDV345652.

Other details: CUC/ANT 42 in HER.


Lambert, M. J., 1973, Roads to the Roman Camp at North Tawton, 136 (Article in Serial). SDV274717.


Fox, A., 1973, South West England 3,500BC - AD600 (Revised Edition), 164 (Monograph). SDV16216.


Balkwill, C. J., 1976, Archaeology and Development in Rural Devon (Report - Survey). SDV343024.

Other details: Miscellaneous Number 2.


Timms, S. C., 1981, Earthwork (Worksheet). SDV345644.

The site is under grass and may be affected by proposals to site a telecommunications centre in this field. The ditch can be traced on all four sides and is at its deepest on the north.


Griffiths, D. M., 1983, Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV345645.

The site has been surveyed by Exeter University students.


1983, Untitled Source (Photograph). SDV345650.


Earwood, C., 1984, Broadbury Castle (Worksheet). SDV359148.


Griffith, F. M., 1984, DAP/CG, 10a,11 (Aerial Photograph). SDV267548.


Griffith, F. M., 1984, DAP/DI, 9 (Aerial Photograph). SDV345651.


Maxfield, V. A., 1985, Excavations at Ashbury in 1983 with a note on Broadbury Castle, 54-57 (Article in Serial). SDV351454.


Maxfield, V. A., 1985, Interim Report on Excavation 1985, 51-8 (Report - Interim). SDV35288.

The excavation report discusses the morphology of similar enclosures.


Griffith, F. M., 1985, Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV345646.

The site of the Post Office mast was excavated in 1983. No features were identified in the vicinity of the earthwork.


Grant, N., 1995, The Occupation of Hillforts in Devon during the Late Roman and Post Roman Periods, 102 (Article in Serial). SDV7954.


Miller, A., 1996, Aerial photographic assessment (Interpretation). SDV265154.


Griffith, F. M., 1996, DAP/ABC, 11,12 (Aerial Photograph). SDV321074.


Gerrard, S., 1997, 143354 (Un-published). SDV345647.

Rectangular enclosure with rounded corners, an enclosing rampart, outer ditch and second rampart on north and east sides. Internal dimensions 69 metres east to west, 61.24 metres north to south. Rampart survives best on north and east but is clearly visible on all sides. It is up to 5.6 metres wide and 0.6 metres high internally. Outer ditch survives on all sides up to 5.4 metres wide, 0.5 metres deep. Outer rampart survives as slight earthwork up to 7.7 metres wide.


Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 1998, Broadbury Castle, Roman Camp (Schedule Document). SDV345654.

Broadbury Castle Roman camp includes a Roman marching camp located on the summit of a high ridge known as Broadbury. The monument survives as a rectangular enclosure with rounded corners, an enclosing rampart, outer ditch and second rampart on the northern and eastern sides. The internal dimensions of the enclosure are 69 metres long from east to west and 61.24 metres wide from north to south. The rampart survives best to the north and east but is clearly visible on all sides. It measures up to 5.6 metres wide and 0.6 metres high internally. The outer ditch survives on all sides and measures up to 5.4 metres wide and 0.5 metres deep. The outer rampart survives as a slight earthwork measuring up to 7.7 metres wide. Despite ploughing, Broadbury Castle Roman camp survives well and contains information relating to the military and strategic use of this area during the Roman period. Other details: Monument 30331.


Dodd, M., 2004, Dean Milles Parochial Survey. Questionnaire (1747-1762) (Un-published). SDV162499.


Young, A., 2005, Transcriptions from Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project (Cartographic). SDV321540.

Transcriptions of banks and ditches corresponds to the grid reference for PRN167256. Map object partly based on this source.


Young, A. & Turner, S., 2005-2006, North Devon/Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project database records, PRN167256 (Interpretation). SDV358473.

A rectilinear enclosure at Broadbury is visible on aerial photographs (p1) as a series of concentric banks and ditches. The outer-most banked enclosure is 90m x 83m. Within this is a ditch, then another bank, then an internal ditch. The internal dimensions of the enclosure are 58m x 62m. The site has been digitally plotted as part of the National Mapping Programme.
Photograph reference:
1. DCC DAP CG 10A- 11 16-JUL-1984


National Monuments Record, 2010, 438191 (National Monuments Record Database). SDV345643.

Rectilinear enclosure, possibly a Prehistoric or Roman enclosed settlement or a Roman fort, seen as an earthwork.


Ordnance Survey, 2010, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV344030.

'Broadbury Castle' shown on modern mapping as a square feature to the north-east of Castle Cross'. Map object partly based on this Source.


Smart, C., 29/08/2012, Broadbury Castle (Correspondence). SDV351448.

Aerial photo of 2010 appears to shown some form of earthmoving within the monuments, possibly infilling the earthwork hollows of the enclosing ditch.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV158810Article in Serial: Worth, R. N.. 1891. President's Address: Localities of Roman Remains in Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 23. A5 Hardback. 79.
SDV16214Un-published: Woollcombe, H.. 1839-1850. Woollcombe Manuscript. Manuscript.
SDV16216Monograph: Fox, A.. 1973. South West England 3,500BC - AD600 (Revised Edition). South West England. Hardback Volume. 164.
SDV162499Un-published: Dodd, M.. 2004. Dean Milles Parochial Survey. Questionnaire (1747-1762). Dean Milles Parochial Survey. Questionnarie (1747-62). Digital.
SDV21030Monograph: Polwhele, R.. 1793-1806. The History of Devonshire. The History of Devonshire. Unknown. 186,189.
SDV224714Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 13/04/1947. RAF/CPE/UK/1995. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 2211.
SDV230002Article in Serial: Martin, J. M.. 1893. Broadbury and its Ancient Earthworks. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 25. Unknown. 547-9.
SDV231757Article in Serial: Hoskins, W. G.. 1954 - 1955. Devon Parish Notes. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 26. Unknown. 133.
SDV249697Monograph: Rowe, S.. 1896. A Perambulation of the Forest of Dartmoor. Perambulation of the Forest of Dartmoor. Unknown. 228.
SDV265154Interpretation: Miller, A.. 1996. Aerial photographic assessment. Aerial Photograph Primary Recoding Project. Map (Paper).
SDV267548Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1984. DAP/CG. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 10a,11.
SDV274717Article in Serial: Lambert, M. J.. 1973. Roads to the Roman Camp at North Tawton. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 105. A5 Paperback. 136.
SDV321074Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1996. DAP/ABC. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 11,12.
SDV321540Cartographic: Young, A.. 2005. Transcriptions from Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project. Plot of Cropmarks. Digital.
SDV325644Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1904 - 1906. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV336179Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1880-1899. First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map. First Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV336413Monograph: Donn, B.. 1965. A Map of the County of Devon, 1765 (Reprint). A Map of the County of Devon, 1765 (Reprint). Hardback Volume.
SDV341465Article in Monograph: Wall, J. C.. 1906. Ancient Earthworks. Victoria History of the County of Devon. Hardback Volume. 602-3.
SDV343024Report - Survey: Balkwill, C. J.. 1976. Archaeology and Development in Rural Devon. Devon Committee for Rescue Archaeology Report. 2. A4 Stapled.
SDV344030Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2010. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital).
SDV345566Article in Serial: Virtue, O. H.. 1868. National Gazetteer. 1. Unknown. 350.
SDV345642Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1950. SX49NE9. OSAD Card. Card Index + Digital.
SDV345643National Monuments Record Database: National Monuments Record. 2010. 438191. National Monuments Record Database. Website.
SDV345644Worksheet: Timms, S. C.. 1981. Earthwork. Devon County Sites and Monuments Register. Worksheet + Digital.
SDV345645Personal Comment: Griffiths, D. M.. 1983.
SDV345646Personal Comment: Griffith, F. M.. 1985.
SDV345647Un-published: Gerrard, S.. 1997. 143354. Monument Protection Programme. Archaeological Item Dataset.. Unknown.
SDV345648Article in Serial: Martin, J. M.. 1914. The Anglian Invasion of Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 46. A5 Hardback. 387.
SDV345649Aerial Photograph: Cambridge University. 1962. CUC/AFD. Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs. Photograph (Paper). 10-11.
SDV345650Photograph: 1983. Slide.
SDV345651Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1984. DAP/DI. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 9.
SDV345652Aerial Photograph: Cambridge University. 1966. CUC/ANT. Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs. Photograph (Paper). 40-43.
SDV345653Schedule Document: Ministry of Works. 1957. Broadbury Castle, Roman Camp. The Schedule of Monuments. Foolscap.
SDV345654Schedule Document: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 1998. Broadbury Castle, Roman Camp. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV351448Correspondence: Smart, C.. 29/08/2012. Broadbury Castle. Email to B. Horner. Email.
SDV351454Article in Serial: Maxfield, V. A.. 1985. Excavations at Ashbury in 1983 with a note on Broadbury Castle. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 43. Paperback Volume. 54-57.
SDV35288Report - Interim: Maxfield, V. A.. 1985. Interim Report on Excavation 1985. Interim Report on Excavation 1985. Unknown. 51-8.
SDV358473Interpretation: Young, A. & Turner, S.. 2005-2006. North Devon/Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme (NMP) project database records. Cornwall Council Report. Digital. PRN167256.
SDV359148Worksheet: Earwood, C.. 1984. Broadbury Castle. Devon County Sites and Monuments Register. Worksheet + Digital.
SDV7954Article in Serial: Grant, N.. 1995. The Occupation of Hillforts in Devon during the Late Roman and Post Roman Periods. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 53. Paperback Volume. 102.

Associated Monuments

MDV27979Related to: ARTEFACT SCATTER in the Parish of Beaworthy (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV7455 - Winkleigh Biomass Plant National Mapping Programme

Date Last Edited:Oct 16 2018 4:41PM