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HER Number:MDV17018
Name:Linhay on Braunton Marsh, 700 metres west of the Great Sluice

Summary

Remains of four back-to-back shelters under one roof with open fronts and rectangular fold yards each side. Analysis of aerial photographs indicates that the roof was lost between 1985 and 1992, and the walls are visible but ruinous on aerial photographs taken in 2010. The building appears to have originally been a double sided, single storey linhay that was subsequently further divided, presumably at the same time as the division of the land area in which it stood. It is shown on the 1840s Tithe Map and is probably contemporary with the enclosure of the marsh.

Location

Grid Reference:SS 470 341
Map Sheet:SS43SE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBraunton
DistrictNorth Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishBRAUNTON

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SS43SE/42
  • Old Listed Building Ref (II): 98297

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • LINHAY (Built, XIX - 1801 AD to 1840 AD (Between))

Full description

Child, P., 14/01/2000, Countryside Stewardship Application. Linhay on Braunton Marsh (Correspondence). SDV351427.

A photo of the building taken at the time of its listing in the early 1980s shows the building to be in a much more complete state. It is now derelict. It is shown on the 1840s Tithe Map and it is probably contemporary with the enclosure of the Marsh. It is considered of value, therefore, in both historical and landscape terms.
The structure appears to have originally been a double-sided, single storey linhay, or open-fronted cattle shed, with a central longitudinal dividing wall. It was subsequently divided in two centrally across its short axis seemingly at the same time as the division of the land area in which it stood. Four small stone-walled stockyards were also constructed on either side of the linhay.
The building is mostly constructed of lime-mortared rubble but the gable walls are capped with cob. The eaves were supported by a series of round rubble stone columns which probably carried a continuous timber plate to support the rafters, many of which are now on the ground in a decayed state. At the time of listing the roof was clad with corrugated iron of which a few pieces lie on the ground. Whether this had replaced thatch or slates is not possible to say. Suggested basic restoration works include repair of the gable walls, reconstruction of the stone pillars to their original height, new roof structure and roof cladding of an appropriate material.


Devon County Council, 1838-1848, Tithe Mosaic, approximately 1838-1848 (Cartographic). SDV349431.

Linhay shown on Tithe Map divided into two plots (418 and 438) with yards on the north and south sides. Plot 418 is recorded on the Apportionment as Marsh Linhay & Yard in the occupation of Rev. Frances Hole and plot 438 as House, shed and yard in the occupation of Thomas Reed.


Turpin, J. W., 1982, Braunton Great Field and Marshes, 8 (Report - non-specific). SDV341027.

Erected following reclamation of the marshes, linhays provided shelter for stock, and contribute to the character of the area.


Timms, S. C., 1982, Braunton Marsh Linhays (Personal Comment). SDV341134.

One of a number of agricultural buildings erected in fields on Braunton Marsh which was reclaimed in 1811-1815. Shown on the Braunton parish tithe map circa 1840.


Dennis, A. J., 1983, Braunton Marshes Linhay Survey (Archive - Survey). SDV341136.

Linhay 16. No drawing, notes or photograph. Marked on Tithe Map.


Department of Environment, 1985, Braunton, 22 (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV73918.


Ordnance Survey, 1992, OS/92243, NMR OS/92243 028-029 07-JUL-1992 (Aerial Photograph). SDV349088.

An unroofed, two cell structure is visible.


North Devon District Council, 2003, North Devon Buildings at Risk Survey 2000-2003, 16 (Report - Survey). SDV344372.

The roof has gone, including timbers and sheet covering. Un-supported east gable is on the point of collapse. The west gable is slightly better, but has a large lump of loose brickwork. Other details: Photographs.


Manning, C., 2007, Braunton Marsh Management Study 2007, 8, 23 (Report - non-specific). SDV341104.

The Marsh linhays are intrinsically associated with the traditional cattle farming of the area, and their construction is believed to have started almost immediately after the initial enclosure was completed. Almost all linhays appear to have been built by the time of the 1842 tithe map of Braunton Parish. Linhays are 2 storey, open-sided cattle shelters, with a talet which was used to store feed. This study has produced a photographic inventory of the current condition of the Marsh linhays, together with any known sites of linhays which have now been lost forever.


Wessex Archaeology, 2007, RMB Chivenor Flood Defence Scheme Barnstaple, Devon: Archaeological Desk-based Assessment, 10 (WA28) (Report - Assessment). SDV342125.


Collings, A. G. + Manning, P. T. + Valentin, J., 2007, The North Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Phase 1. Archaeological Survey. Summary Report, No. 781 (Report - Assessment). SDV339712.


Ordnance Survey, 2010, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV344030.


Next Perspectives, 2010, Next Perspectives PGA Tile Ref:, Next Perspectives PGA Tile Ref: SS4932 08-APR-2010 (Aerial Photograph). SDV349899.

The walls are visible as a ruinous structure.


Hegarty, C. + Knight, S., 2011 - 2012, North Devon Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty National Mapping Programme Project, NMR RAF/106G/LA/102 5035 17-JAN-1945 (Interpretation). SDV349018.

The earliest available aerial photograph that shows the linhay with no roof is dated 1992, suggesting that the roof was lost between 1985 and 1992. The walls are visible but ruinous on aerial photographs taken in 2010.


English Heritage, 2014, National Heritage List for England (National Heritage List for England). SDV355683.

Cattle shelter and adjoining wall 70 [sic] metres west of the Great Sluice. 1815-20. Shale rubble, west end rendered. Cob course below verges on end walls. Corrugated iron half hipped roof. Back-to- back shelters under one roof with 8-bay open fronts on both sides with roof supported on circular stone rubble piers. One pier on north side replaced with square concrete pier. One pier on south side missing. Rectangular fold yards each side with stone rubble walls with vertical stone top course. Fold yards divided at centre, the walls continuing inside shelter to subdivide it at centre. This cattle shelter (locally known as linhays) is one of many on Braunton Marsh and served as a shelter and probably a fodder store for cattle on the marsh. Braunton Marsh was probably reclaimed in the Middle Ages from tidal waters of the River Taw, but from 1811-15 the marsh was more extensively drained after authorization by Act of Parliament (1811) as a result of the endeavours of the Lords of the Manors of Braunton Gorges, Braunton Abbotts, Braunton Arundel and Saunton and others who had grazing rights on the marshes. They sought to enclose Braunton Marsh which was regularly flooded by tidal water. 949 acres were reclaimed. John Pascoe was the surveyor and James Green (County Surveyor) the engineer. The adjacent Horsey Island to the south east was reclaimed between 1852-1857. Historically these late enclosures are particularly interesting in Braunton where the Great Field immediately north of the marsh is one of only 3 open field systems to survive in England. Although today (1984) there are only 5 farmers on the Great Field their holdings are still widely dispersed over the field as they were in the Middle Ages when there were about 100 farmers.


Historic England, 2015, National Heritage List for England (National Heritage List for England). SDV358087.

This list entry was subject to a Minor Amendment on 16/07/2015.
Cattle Shelter and adjoining wall 700 metres west of The Great Sluice. Formerly listed as Cattle Shelter and adjoining wall 70 metres west of The Great Sluice.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV339712Report - Assessment: Collings, A. G. + Manning, P. T. + Valentin, J.. 2007. The North Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Phase 1. Archaeological Survey. Summary Report. Exeter Archaeology Report. 06.22 (rev.1). A4 Stapled + Digital. No. 781.
SDV341027Report - non-specific: Turpin, J. W.. 1982. Braunton Great Field and Marshes. Devon County Council Report. A4 Stapled + Digital. 8.
SDV341104Report - non-specific: Manning, C.. 2007. Braunton Marsh Management Study 2007. Taw Torridge Estuary Forum Report. A4 Spiral Bound. 8, 23.
SDV341134Personal Comment: Timms, S. C.. 1982. Braunton Marsh Linhays. Unknown.
SDV341136Archive - Survey: Dennis, A. J.. 1983. Braunton Marshes Linhay Survey. Braunton Marsh Linhay Survey. Digital + Mixed Archive Material.
SDV342125Report - Assessment: Wessex Archaeology. 2007. RMB Chivenor Flood Defence Scheme Barnstaple, Devon: Archaeological Desk-based Assessment. Wessex Archaeology Report. 67300.01. A4 Stapled + Digital. 10 (WA28).
SDV344030Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2010. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital). [Mapped feature: #81973 ]
SDV344372Report - Survey: North Devon District Council. 2003. North Devon Buildings at Risk Survey 2000-2003. North Devon District Council Report. A4 Stapled + Digital. 16.
SDV349018Interpretation: Hegarty, C. + Knight, S.. 2011 - 2012. North Devon Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty National Mapping Programme Project. AC Archaeology Report. ACD383/2/1. Digital. NMR RAF/106G/LA/102 5035 17-JAN-1945.
Linked documents:1
SDV349088Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1992. OS/92243. Ordnance Survey Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). NMR OS/92243 028-029 07-JUL-1992.
SDV349431Cartographic: Devon County Council. 1838-1848. Tithe Mosaic, approximately 1838-1848. Digitised Tithe Map. Digital.
SDV349899Aerial Photograph: Next Perspectives. 2010. Next Perspectives PGA Tile Ref:. Pan Government Agreement Aerial Photographs. Digital. Next Perspectives PGA Tile Ref: SS4932 08-APR-2010.
SDV351427Correspondence: Child, P.. 14/01/2000. Countryside Stewardship Application. Linhay on Braunton Marsh. Letter to Farming and Rural Conservation Agency. Digital.
SDV355683National Heritage List for England: English Heritage. 2014. National Heritage List for England. Historic Houses Register. Website.
SDV358087National Heritage List for England: Historic England. 2015. National Heritage List for England. Website.
SDV73918List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1985. Braunton. Historic Houses Register. A4 Spiral Bound. 22.

Associated Monuments: none recorded

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV4490 - RMB Chivenor Flood Defence Scheme Barnstaple, Devon: Archaeological Desk-based Assessment
  • EDV4599 - North Devon Buildings at Risk Survey 2000-2003
  • EDV6132 - North Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty NMP Project

Date Last Edited:Jan 15 2016 2:32PM