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HER Number:MDV17537
Name:Clay Moor Works, Peters Marland

Summary

The moor is often referred to as Greening's Clay Moor after the name of the family who developed a tobacco pipe clay works here in the 17th century and built up a flourishing trade shipping clay out of Bideford. The industry declined at the end of the 18th century; in 1822 it was reported that the clay pits at Peters Marland had not been worked for nearly 20 years which appears to fit with the decline in pipe making and also of Bideford as a port. The construction of the Rolle Canal improved matters and by 1829 if not before clay was again being shipped out by sea. A light railway was subsequently built right into the clay workings and by the late 19th century quantities of clay were being exported. Although the clay was now being put to many uses the North Devon Clay Company, who had succeeded the earlier owners, still advertised their produced as the 'best tobacco-pipe clay'.

Location

Grid Reference:SS 504 125
Map Sheet:SS51SW
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishPeters Marland
DistrictTorridge
Ecclesiastical ParishPETERS MARLAND

Protected Status: none recorded

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SS51SW/24

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • CLAY WORKINGS (Early Medieval to XXI - 1066 AD to 2009 AD (Between))

Full description

Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21205.

Caulfield-brown, p.(ed)/tda/99(1967)29/proceedings at the 105th annual meeting.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21206.

Des=tithe map in dro/(1839).


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21207.

Usher, w. A. E. /tda/11(1879)432/on the deposits of petrockstow, in devon.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21208.

Messenger, m. J. /north devon clay/(1982)1-87/photos,plans.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21209.

Dro=3518b/.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21210.

Des=slides in smr/(2/1983).


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21211.

Des=worksheet/greeves, t. A. P. /(nd).


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21212.

Des=os 6" (1906) 40ne.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV21213.

Des=os 6" (1964).


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, Untitled Source (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV24.

At peters marland there is a ball-clay quarry belonging to north devon clay company. It is one of only four ball-clay quarries or mines in the world (caulfield-brown). No evidence for quarrying here at the time of the tithe map, although field no.675 (at ss502129) is called "brick field" (tithe map). There are many clay pits on the moor as a result of quarrying, also a shaft 24.4m deep, filled up in november 1877 (usher). The peters marland/merton clay was exploited in the late 18th century (though the origins of quarrying here are possibly 16th or 17th century), and again (following a period of abandonment) in the mid 19th century. By 1845 a brick kiln had been established (see sub-sheet). The works gradually expanded southwards, with bury moor being leased from lord clinton c.1892, and grange moor being exploited in 1900's. Clay was dug mainly from pits in 19th century, though shaft mining became dominant in late 19th/early 20th century. This book traces the development of the industry, its ownership and management to the present day, providing plans and photos. An important feature was the torrington and marland light railway. See ss51sw/40 (messenger). There are about 130 documents in the dro concerned with the management of the mines from the mid 19th century onwards. They show the clay being used for a variety of uses, pottery, bricks, tiles etc. There are late 19th century plans of the works (dro). Vis=22/2/1983 (griffiths). The clay is now being excavated from two large open pits, and traces of former quarrying are largely submerged under waste tips or dense bracken and scrub. Occasional hollows representing earlier clay pits are visible, and also areas of subsidence around old shafts. Reference to workings at claymore bridge on worksheet (worksheet). Vis=for extent of workings in 1906 see os 6" and subsheets (os).


Ordnance Survey, 1880-1899, First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map (Cartographic). SDV336179.

Old Clay Pits marked.


Grant, A. + Jemmett, D., 1985, Pipes and Pipemaking in Barnstaple, Devon, 482-488 (Article in Serial). SDV354868.

The moor is often referred to as Greening's Clay Moor after the name of the family who developed a tobacco pipe clay works here in the 17th century and built up a flourishing trade shipping clay out of Bideford. The industry declined at the end of the 18th century; in 1822 it was reported that the clay pits at Peters Marland had not been worked for nearly 20 years which appears to fit with the decline in pipe making and also of Bideford as a port. The construction of the Rolle Canal improved matters and by 1829 if not before clay was again being shipped out by sea. A light railway was subsequently built right into the clay workings and by the late 19th century quantities of clay were being exported. Although the clay was now being put to many uses the North Devon Clay Company, who had succeeded the earlier owners, still advertised their produced as the 'best tobacco-pipe clay'.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV21205Migrated Record:
SDV21206Migrated Record:
SDV21207Migrated Record:
SDV21208Migrated Record:
SDV21209Migrated Record:
SDV21210Migrated Record:
SDV21211Migrated Record:
SDV21212Migrated Record:
SDV21213Migrated Record:
SDV24Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV336179Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1880-1899. First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map. First Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV354868Article in Serial: Grant, A. + Jemmett, D.. 1985. Pipes and Pipemaking in Barnstaple, Devon. The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco Pipe IX: More Pipes From the Midlands and Southern England. BAR British Series 146. A4 Stapled + Digital. 482-488.

Associated Monuments

MDV108535Related to: Clay Pits at Clay Moor, Peters Marland (Monument)
MDV22390Related to: Torrington and Marland Light Railway (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded


Date Last Edited:Nov 27 2014 9:45AM