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HER Number:MDV1913
Name:Stockland Great Castle

Summary

A large irregular shaped Iron Age hillfort with substantial earthwork remains north of the road from Broadhayes Cross to Broadhayes Farm. South of the road the rampart and ditch survive as very subtle earthworks visible on aerial photographs.

Location

Grid Reference:ST 225 025
Map Sheet:ST20SW
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishStockland
DistrictEast Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishSTOCKLAND

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: ST20SW/2
  • Old SAM County Ref: 110
  • Old SAM Ref: 29646
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division: ST20SW 3

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • HILLFORT (Iron Age - 700 BC to 42 AD (Between))

Full description

Pearce, N., Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV112438.

Longbear Down is Stockland Hill.


Davidson, J. B., 1833, British and Roman Remains in the Vicinity of Axminster, 10 (Monograph). SDV131303.


Unknown, 1844, Stockland (Cartographic). SDV105189.

Field names on the 19th century Stockland Tithe Map Apportionment include 'Castle' for field 1632, 'Castle Ditch' for field 1631 and 'Castle' for field 1670. Other details: Apportionment.


Hutchinson, P. O., 1848-1894, Diaries (Un-published). SDV339321.

Earthwork crossed by public road. Badly damaged by cultivation but best preserved in northern side. Plan in manuscript. Finds of "sling stones" recorded.


Hutchinson, P. O., 1868, On Hill Fortresses, Sling-Stones, and other Antiquities in South Eastern Devon, 374 (Article in Serial). SDV120058.


Kirwan, R., 1871, The Prehistoric Archaeology of East Devon, 648 (Article in Serial). SDV135842.

The Castle occupies an area of about 12 acres, about 300 metres long, irregular in form, enclosed by an agger over 12 metres high in places.


Worth, R. N., 1873, The Common Seals of Devon, 80 (Article in Serial). SDV112451.


Wall, J. C., 1906, Ancient Earthworks, 588-9 (Article in Monograph). SDV341465.

Stockland Great Castle, only north half remains. It was a hill fort of great strength, probably of late Iron Age date, and may have been constructed by the Dumnonii on their frontier against the Durotriges (of Dorset). The single vallum is still over 40 feet high in places. The camp lies on the hill southwest of the village. Other details: Plan.


Office of Works, 1924, Stockland Great Camp (Schedule Document). SDV343078.

Stockland Great Camp. An irregular shaped camp lying on Stockland Hill. The hill is on no side very steep, and it relied principally on artificial defences. The road to Cotleigh has cut the camp in two from east to west. The northern half is fairly well preserved consisting of a single vallum and fosse, the former in places 40 feet high. An entrance exists on the north-west. The southern half has been levelled, but it can be traced across a field by the slight rise and fall and by sparseness of the grass in a dry summer. It is only marked by hedges for about one third of the distance. Other details: Map.


Royal Air Force, 1947, RAF/CPE/UK/1974, RAF/CPE/UK/1974 FS 2436-2437 11-APR-1947 (Aerial Photograph). SDV356127.

The southern rampart was visible as a pale cropmark. Map object based partly on this source.


Royal Air Force, 1947, RAF/CPE/UK/1974/2436 (Aerial Photograph). SDV112465.

Other details: HER 31/60.


Carter, G., 1947, Untitled Source, 174 (Article in Serial). SDV112452.


Hawkes, J., 1951, Untitled Source, 132, 306 (Monograph). SDV112450.


Hoskins, W. G., 1954, A New Survey of England: Devon, 480 (Monograph). SDV17562.


Ordnance Survey, 1954 - 1979, ST20SW 3 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV343092.

Other details: Plan.


Donn, B., 1965, A Map of the County of Devon, 1765 (Reprint) (Monograph). SDV336413.

Shown on Donn's map of 1765.


Piper, N., 1981, An Investigation of Some Archaeological Features In and Around the Parish of Dalwood, 5 (Un-published). SDV112611.


Robinson, R., 1982, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1982 (Un-published). SDV345608.

Department of Environment Field Monument Warden site visit 4th April 1982.


Attrill, N., 1982, Stockland Great Castle (Plan - measured). SDV343081.

Other details: Scale 1:2500.


Timms, S. C., 1983, Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV112437.

Two camps on Longbear Down near Stockland are noted by Davidson (1833). He may be referring to this site and Stockland Little Castle or to two totally different sites. Longbear Down has not been located, but Langbeer Farm is sited at ST230045.


Griffith, F. M., 1984, DAP/W, 11 (Aerial Photograph). SDV112460.


Earwood, C., 1984, Great Camp, Longbear Down: Also Called Stockland Hill (Worksheet). SDV112441.

Details from Woollcombe Manuscript. Twelve acres enclosed by bankand ditch of great width (maximum 35 feet wide at base, average height 10 feet to 25 feet with ditch), strongest to south and east. Inside, remains of circular bank 60 feet in diameter in northeast, almost destroyed by ploughing. Pot found by rampart in 1823. Plan in manuscript. Other details: Original in Devon & Exeter Institute.


Robinson, R., 1984, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1984 (Un-published). SDV343082.

Department of Environment Field Monument Warden site visit 21st May 1984.


Griffith, F. M., 1986, DAP/GS, 3-4 (Aerial Photograph). SDV112607.


Unknown, 1986, Great Camp (Worksheet). SDV112443.

Field Monument Warden visit 08/08/1986. Frequent beacon fires lighted on south side. Large quantities of wood ash found. Also, many sling stones. An earthen pot about 6 or 8 inches high full of sling stones was found by William Follett of Shore Bottom. Since destroyed.


Robinson, R., 1986, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1986 (Un-published). SDV345664.

Department of Environment Field Monument Warden site visit 8th August 1986.


Griffith, F. M., 1988, DAP/KH, 5-8 (Aerial Photograph). SDV112469.


Griffith, F. M., 1988, Devon's Past. An Aerial View, 99 (Monograph). SDV64198.


Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit, 1993, Blackdown Hills Survey (Report - Survey). SDV97763.

Further slingstones found by N Pearce. Other details: Archive.


Fox, A., 1996, Prehistoric Hillforts in Devon, 52-3 (Monograph). SDV7958.


Horner, B., 1997, DAP/ABI, 24-6 (Aerial Photograph). SDV324360.


Salvatore, J. P., 1997, Stockland Great Castle, 144401 (Un-published). SDV343083.

The monument includes a prehistoric hillfort known as Stockland Great Castle. The site is situated on an east facing slope of the long Greensand ridge route which lies between the Umborne Brook and the River Yarty. The hillfort has an irregularly shaped interior area defended by a single rampart and ditch. A modern road bisects the monument east/west.The irregular interior of the hillfort is a maximum 230 metres east to west by a maximum 270 metres north to south but the curvature of the defences coupled with the bowed re-entrant of the circuit on its north western side reduce the available internal area to about 4 hectares. The site has no natural defences and the rampart and ditch of the monument are of massive construction. The rampart survives, north of the road from Broadhayes Farm to Broadhayes Cross, which runs east to west through the body of the monument, as an earthen/stone bank. The north-east quadrant of the rampart forms a gentle and fairly regular curve whilst the north west quadrant bows inward from a point at the northern apex of the monument. The rampart has a near vertical inner face 3 metres high revetted in places by chert stone; this revetting may be of somewhat later date. The rampart is a maximum of 17 metres wide and chert has also been used to produce a 5 metre wide stone capping for the flat top along part of its western and northern course. The sloping outer face of the rampart is fronted by a broad ditch some 7 metres wide and at least 2 metres deep, the inner face of the ditch conjoining with the outer slope of the rampart to produce a scarp with a combined depth in excess of 6 metres on the north eastern side of the monument. The original profile of the ditch at its base cannot be seen as it is partially infilled with loose chert, rubble, and soil. The ditch terminates just north of the road on its eastern side at a point where the rampart appears to do likewise and this may indicate the location of the original entrance to the hillfort. This is supported by the fact that the rampart takes a slightly different alignment south of the road suggesting an inturned gate at the point where the modern road now runs through. A further gap in the rampart exists on the north western side but the ditch in front of this gap is infilled by an earth/flint causeway the material for which almost certainly derives from the overthrown bank and this gap must be considered later than the primary use of the hillfort. The massive defences visible over the northern part of the site have largely been levelled south of the road although sections of the rampart, the ditch, and a possible counterscarp are visible as low earthworks particularly on the down slope and eastern part of the field in which they lie. The rampart here is visible only as a low rise about 11.4 metres wide fronted by a depression 8.9 metres wide which must indicate the underlying position of the ditch. Forward of the ditch is a further rise visible only for a short distance but indicating traces of a counterscarp. None of these features are visible further west in the same field but a depression in the road on the suspected alignment of the ditch at the western end of the monument suggests its presence as a below ground feature beneath both the road and the field. Although it has never been subjected to controlled excavation a number of chance finds of sling stones have been reported from the monument over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries.


Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 1998, Stockland Great Castle (Schedule Document). SDV343087.

The prehistoric hillfort of Stockland Great Castle survives well despite levelling of part of the circuit by cultivation, and will contain archaeological information relating to the construction and use of the site, the lives of its inhabitants, and the landscape in which they lived. A prehistoric routeway running along a nearby ridge, and an enclosed settlement known as a `round' some 900 metres to the north-east, provide unusual associations for this hillfort.


Exeter Archaeology, 2003, East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey, 14, Part 1; 114, Part 2: Gazetteer, Site No. 489 (Report - Survey). SDV101648.

The earthwork known as Stockland Great Castle is an Iron Age hillfort. The fort has been cut east/west by the road. The part to north of the road survives as a substantial bank. However, it has been largely levelled to the south of the road. Slingstones have been found in this area. The site lies to southwest of the Shore Bottom survey area.


Exeter Archaeology, 2003, East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey, Site No. 489 (Archive - Survey). SDV358490.


Exeter Archaeology, 2003, East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey, Site No. 489 (Report - Survey). SDV359019.


Cobley, J., 2007, Damage at Stockland Great Camp and Stockland Little Camp (Correspondence). SDV338971.

The entrance to the field has been widened. This is not part of the surrounding camp bank, but it is showing signs of erosion that will destroy more of the hedge bank.


Cobley, J., 2007, Stockland Great Camp (Ground Photograph). SDV343090.


National Monument Record, 2008, NMR 24902, NMR 24902/16 30-JAN-2008 (Aerial Photograph). SDV359594.

The earthworks of Stockland Great Castle were visible.


English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West, 98 (Report - non-specific). SDV342694.

Extensive significant problems, ie under plough, collapse. Principal vulnerability arable ploughing.


English Heritage, 2010, Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West, 89 (Report - non-specific). SDV344777.

Extensive significant problems, i.e. under plough, collapse. Principal vulnerability arable ploughing.


English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West, 93 (Report - non-specific). SDV355280.

Extensive significant problems, i.e. under plough, collapse. Declining. Principal vulnerability arable ploughing.


Next Perspectives, 2014, Aerial Photography for Great Britain, Next Perspectives APGB Imagery ST2202 08-SEP-2014 (Aerial Photograph). SDV359479.

Part of the external ditch was visible south of the road as a slight earthwork and dark cropmark. Map object based partly on this source.


Costen, D., 2016, Land at Camp Field, Oak View, Broadhayes, Farm, Stockland (Report - Watching Brief). SDV359818.

Archaeological monitoring and recording carried out by AC archaeology was undertaken during
groundworks associated with the reversal of operations associated with the creation of a temporary level platform on land at Camp Field, Oak View, Broadhayes Farm, Stockland, Devon.

The monitoring of the reversal works to the temporary platform established that no impact to the level at which any underlying archaeological features or deposits that may have been present had been sustained, with excavations for the terrace maintained within the ploughsoil horizon.

Following the removal of the temporary platform, the natural gradient of the hillslope was re-instated.


Bluesky International, 2016, LiDAR DTM data (0.5m resolution) Blackdown Hills and East Devon AONBs: 3 transects, LIDAR ST2202 Bluesky International DTM 24 & 30-APR-2016 (Cartographic). SDV359714.

Ramparts and ditches were visible as substantial earthworks north of the road and very slight earthworks to the south of the road. Map object based partly on this source.


Hegarty, C. + Knight, S. + Sims, R., 2016-2018, The Blackdown Hills AONB and East Devon River Catchments National Mapping Programme Project (Interpretation). SDV359463.

The earthwork ramparts and ditches of Stockland Great Castle were visible on aerial photographs of 1947, digital images derived from aerial photographs of 2014 and digital images derived from lidar data captured in 2016.
North of the road from Broadhayes Cross to Broadhayes Farm the ramparts were largely obscured from view on aerial photographs by dense hedge bank vegetation, and could be transcribed only from images visualised from lidar data. The visible rampart earthworks were mostly between 10 to 15 metres wide and the external ditch between 3 and 6 metres wide, although the accurate transcription of the ditch was complicated by the presence of a narrow outer bank. This outer earthwork was less accurately revealed by the lidar survey, and was less clearly visualised by subsequent processing, but appeared to be on average about 3 metres wide. It may not be contemporary with the enclosure and might be of later, perhaps medieval origin.
The corresponding rampart and ditch to the south of the road have been almost entirely levelled but were visible to the survey on aerial photographs of 1947 and digital images derived from aerial photographs of 2014, but were also clearly discernible on the lidar images.
On the earlier images the course of the rampart south of the road can be seen as a pale, curved soilmark or germination mark between 7 and 18 metres wide. The cropmark was broadest and most irregular in plan to the west. To the east the line of the external ditch can be recorded most confidently on digital images derived from aerial photographs of 2014, specifically false colour infra-red images, to the south-east of the monument. Here the ditch can be traced for nearly 190 metres from the road, measuring between 5 to 7 metres wide. To the west the lidar data indicates survival of very slight ditch earthworks. Hints of a possible external bank might be visible, but was not well enough defined for a confident interpretation or transcription. In addition to data on the form and condition of surviving earthworks north of the road, future lidar survey is likely to provide further detail on the survival and form of these subtle earthworks south of the road.


Tilley, C., 2017, Landscape in the Longue Durée, 299-319, tables 9.1-9.5, figs 9.7-9.17 (Monograph). SDV361032.

Discussion of Woodbury Castle and the other hillforts in the locality, making reference to the East Devon pebblebeds.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV101648Report - Survey: Exeter Archaeology. 2003. East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey. Exeter Archaeology Report. 03.26. A4 Unbound + Digital. 14, Part 1; 114, Part 2: Gazetteer, Site No. 489.
SDV105189Cartographic: Unknown. 1844. Stockland. Tithe Map and Apportionment. Map (Paper).
SDV112437Personal Comment: Timms, S. C.. 1983.
SDV112438Personal Comment: Pearce, N..
SDV112441Worksheet: Earwood, C.. 1984. Great Camp, Longbear Down: Also Called Stockland Hill. Devon County Sites and Monuments Register. Worksheet.
SDV112443Worksheet: Unknown. 1986. Great Camp. Devon County Sites and Monuments Register. Worksheet.
SDV112450Monograph: Hawkes, J.. 1951. A Guide to the Prehistoric and Roman Monuments in England and Wales. Unknown. 132, 306.
SDV112451Article in Serial: Worth, R. N.. 1873. The Common Seals of Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 6. Unknown. 80.
SDV112452Article in Serial: Carter, G.. 1947. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Exploration Society. 3 Part 4. Paperback Volume. 174.
SDV112460Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1984. DAP/W. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 11.
SDV112465Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 1947. RAF/CPE/UK/1974/2436. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper).
SDV112469Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1988. DAP/KH. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 5-8.
SDV112607Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1986. DAP/GS. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 3-4.
SDV112611Un-published: Piper, N.. 1981. An Investigation of Some Archaeological Features In and Around the Parish of Dalwood. A4 Stapled + Digital. 5.
SDV120058Article in Serial: Hutchinson, P. O.. 1868. On Hill Fortresses, Sling-Stones, and other Antiquities in South Eastern Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 2 part 2. A5 Hardback. 374.
SDV131303Monograph: Davidson, J. B.. 1833. British and Roman Remains in the Vicinity of Axminster. British and Roman Remains in the Vicinity of Axminster. Unknown. 10.
SDV135842Article in Serial: Kirwan, R.. 1871. The Prehistoric Archaeology of East Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 4. Unknown. 648.
SDV17562Monograph: Hoskins, W. G.. 1954. A New Survey of England: Devon. A New Survey of England: Devon. A5 Hardback. 480.
SDV324360Aerial Photograph: Horner, B.. 1997. DAP/ABI. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 24-6.
SDV336413Monograph: Donn, B.. 1965. A Map of the County of Devon, 1765 (Reprint). A Map of the County of Devon, 1765 (Reprint). Hardback Volume.
SDV338971Correspondence: Cobley, J.. 2007. Damage at Stockland Great Camp and Stockland Little Camp. Email to B. Horner. A4 Stapled.
SDV339321Un-published: Hutchinson, P. O.. 1848-1894. Diaries. Devon Record Office Collection. Manuscript.
SDV341465Article in Monograph: Wall, J. C.. 1906. Ancient Earthworks. Victoria History of the County of Devon. Hardback Volume. 588-9.
SDV342694Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2009. Heritage at Risk Register 2009: South West. English Heritage Report. A4 Bound +Digital. 98.
SDV343078Schedule Document: Office of Works. 1924. Stockland Great Camp. The Schedule of Monuments. Foolscap.
SDV343081Plan - measured: Attrill, N.. 1982. Stockland Great Castle. A4 Single Sheet.
SDV343082Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1984. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1984. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV343083Un-published: Salvatore, J. P.. 1997. Stockland Great Castle. Monument Protection Programme. Archaeological Item Dataset.. Digital. 144401.
SDV343087Schedule Document: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 1998. Stockland Great Castle. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV343090Ground Photograph: Cobley, J.. 2007. Stockland Great Camp. Photograph (Digital).
SDV343092Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey. 1954 - 1979. ST20SW 3. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV344777Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2010. Heritage at Risk Register 2010: South West. English Heritage Report. Digital. 89.
SDV345608Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1982. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1982. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV345664Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1986. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1986. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV355280Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2011. Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West. english Heritage. Digital. 93.
SDV356127Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 1947. RAF/CPE/UK/1974. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). RAF/CPE/UK/1974 FS 2436-2437 11-APR-1947.
SDV358490Archive - Survey: Exeter Archaeology. 2003. East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey. East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey. Mixed Archive Material. Site No. 489.
SDV359019Report - Survey: Exeter Archaeology. 2003. East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey. Exeter Archaeology Report. 03.26. Site No. 489.
SDV359463Interpretation: Hegarty, C. + Knight, S. + Sims, R.. 2016-2018. The Blackdown Hills AONB and East Devon River Catchments National Mapping Programme Project. Historic England Research Report. Digital.
Linked documents:2
SDV359479Aerial Photograph: Next Perspectives. 2014. Aerial Photography for Great Britain. Digital. Next Perspectives APGB Imagery ST2202 08-SEP-2014.
SDV359594Aerial Photograph: National Monument Record. 2008. NMR 24902. National Monument Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). NMR 24902/16 30-JAN-2008.
SDV359714Cartographic: Bluesky International. 2016. LiDAR DTM data (0.5m resolution) Blackdown Hills and East Devon AONBs: 3 transects. Not applicable. Digital. LIDAR ST2202 Bluesky International DTM 24 & 30-APR-2016.
SDV359818Report - Watching Brief: Costen, D.. 2016. Land at Camp Field, Oak View, Broadhayes, Farm, Stockland. AC Archaeology. ACD1435/2/0. Digital.
SDV361032Monograph: Tilley, C.. 2017. Landscape in the Longue Durée. Landscape in the Longue Durée. Digital. 299-319, tables 9.1-9.5, figs 9.7-9.17.
SDV64198Monograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1988. Devon's Past. An Aerial View. Devon's Past. An Aerial View. Paperback Volume. 99.
SDV7958Monograph: Fox, A.. 1996. Prehistoric Hillforts in Devon. Prehistoric Hillforts in Devon. Paperback Volume. 52-3.
SDV97763Report - Survey: Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit. 1993. Blackdown Hills Survey. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. Unknown.

Associated Monuments

MDV50327Related to: ARTEFACT SCATTER in the Parish of Stockland (Monument)
MDV50328Related to: ARTEFACT SCATTER in the Parish of Stockland (Monument)
MDV50329Related to: ARTEFACT SCATTER in the Parish of Stockland (Monument)
MDV50330Related to: ARTEFACT SCATTER in the Parish of Stockland (Monument)
MDV50508Related to: Artefact Scatter Northeast of Stockland Great Castle Camp (Monument)
MDV54669Related to: SLAG in the Parish of Stockland (Monument)

Associated Finds

  • FDV629 - POT (Unknown date)
  • FDV630 - SLING SHOT (Unknown date)
  • FDV631 - FLAKE (Prehistoric - 698000 BC to 42 AD)

Associated Events

  • EDV3215 - Field Monument Warden Visit
  • EDV3217 - Field Monument Warden Visit
  • EDV3218 - Field Monument Warden Visit
  • EDV3219 - Blackdown Hills Survey
  • EDV3220 - Monument Protection Programme Survey
  • EDV3225 - East Devon Heathlands Archaeological Survey
  • EDV7101 - Monitoring and Recording, Oak View, Broadhayes, Farm, Stockland (Ref: ACD1435/2/0)
  • EDV7508 - The Blackdown Hills AONB and East Devon River Catchments National Mapping Programme (NMP) project (Ref: ACD1228)

Date Last Edited:Feb 14 2019 2:58PM