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HER Number:MDV22886
Name:Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy

Summary

Wheal Russell Mine exploited in the 18th and 19th centuries & later known as Russell United Mine. Part of the Tavistock Canal Company's portfolio of mines in the early 19th century (1806-21) period, it later expanded to include the Wheal Impham sett to the north, closing in around 1890.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 438 711
Map Sheet:SX47SW
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishGulworthy
DistrictWest Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishTAVISTOCK

Protected Status: none recorded

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX47SW/531

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • MINE (First mentioned, XVIII to XIX - 1750 AD? to 1890 AD (Between))

Full description

Ordnance Survey, 1884, Untitled Source (Cartographic). SDV336661.

Early Ordnance Survey map shows main shafts and one or two scattered buildings as well as a magazine next to the adit level. Apparently in use.


Ordnance Survey, 1906, Untitled Source (Cartographic). SDV336662.

Early 20th century map shows it the mine as disused in 1906, 'Old Shaft' shown.


Ordnance Survey, 1907, 105 SW (Cartographic). SDV276342.

'Russell United Mine (Copper, Disused)' marked on early 20th century map.


Ordnance Survey, 1953, Untitled Source (Cartographic). SDV242410.

Map of 1953 shows magazine building but no others. Quarry holes probably mark the position of shafts. Stevens Shaft is part of this mine and is named on this map at SX44657094.


Dines, H. G., 1956, The Metalliferous Mining Region of South West England, 674-5 (Monograph). SDV62852.

Russell United Mine. Three main lodes worked through 3 main shafts (see worksheet) and an adit level to south. Two further shafts some distance to the east also associated. Worked from 1852-1891. Black tin and mispickel as well as copper.


Weddell, P. J., 1984, Untitled Source (Worksheet). SDV336794.

Worksheet gives more details, NGR of shafts, copy of 1906 map of area.


Richardson, P. H. G., 1992, The Mines of Dartmoor and the Tamar Valley after 1913, 139 (Article in Serial). SDV323598.


Dyer, M. J. + Manning, P. T., 1998, Objective 5B: Lower Tamar Valley Recreation and Land Management Iinitiative: Cultural Heritage Appraisal, 38 (Report - non-specific). SDV319814.


Buck, C., 1998, Preliminary Assessment of Industrial Sites of Archaeological Importance in the Tamar Valley, 48 (Report - Assessment). SDV336795.


Buck, C., 1998, Preliminary Assessment of Sites of Archaelogical Importance in the Tamar Valley, 43 (Report - Assessment). SDV241750.

Visited on 19th March 1998. Sited to south of Wheal Impham. Seems to be no main building complex but isolated shafts with surrounding spoil dumps. Low remnants of a building were also found.


Buck, C., 2003, Bedford United Mine: Archaeological Assessment, 11 (Report - Assessment). SDV319828.


Buck, C., 2005, Wheal Russell Mine, Devon: Archaeological Assessment, 7-10, 11, 19-50 (Report - Assessment). SDV336659.

Mining activity at Wheal Russell is referred to from the early 18th century when there was a smelting house at Impham Quay (see PRN 20815). In 1842 the 18th century workings were reopened & amalgamated into the sett of Wheal Russell Mine covering 434 acres. The 1867 survey maps show the location of the mine's leats, waterwheels, mine buildings, flat rod routes & shafts. The company was named Wheal Russell Mine until 1880 when it was renamed Russell United Mining Co until it ceased to operate in 1893. The mine followed two main lodes. The Impham Lode was worked from Impham Shaft eastwards & the Great Lode went to the southwest. The report describes archaeological sites within the Wheal Russell Mine area. Other details: Figs 5 - 7, 9.


Smith, J. R., 2006, Bere Alston to Tavistock Railway: Archaeological Assessment, 35 (Report - Assessment). SDV336796.


Buck, C., 2010, Stephens Shaft, Morwell, Devon: Archaeological Assessment, 14-18 (Report - Assessment). SDV345554.

In 1842 the old 18th century workings, following the Impham lode, were were reopened and amalgamated into the sett of Wheal Russell Mine. The other main lode was Great Lode, from the centre of the mine eastward to Stephen's Shaft to the north-east of Morwell Barton. Other details: Figures 4-5, 9.


Waterhouse, R., 2017, The Tavistock Canal. Its History and Archaeology, 185-7, 231-34, Figs 6.38-6.41, 7.19 (Monograph). SDV361789.

Wheal Russell
It is possible that the Tavistock Canal Company worked or trialled this sett between 1806-1821, although it is not clear what was done with it. The great lode of Wheal Russell may be a continuation of one of the Holming Beam lodes.
Other lodes, particularly the South Lode (beneath Impham Plain Wood and the Tamar) were discovered in the mid-19th century and well-preserved remains from this period including several standing buildings, dumps and earthworks can still be seen. The mine expanded after 1870, to include the sett of Wheal Impham to the north and finally closed in about 1890. See publication for plan and further details.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV241750Report - Assessment: Buck, C.. 1998. Preliminary Assessment of Sites of Archaelogical Importance in the Tamar Valley. Cornwall Archaeological Unit Report. A4 Bound. 43.
SDV242410Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1953. Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Paper).
SDV276342Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1907. 105 SW. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 6 inch Map. Map (Paper).
SDV319814Report - non-specific: Dyer, M. J. + Manning, P. T.. 1998. Objective 5B: Lower Tamar Valley Recreation and Land Management Iinitiative: Cultural Heritage Appraisal. Exeter Archaeology Report. 98.60. A4 Stapled + Digital. 38.
SDV319828Report - Assessment: Buck, C.. 2003. Bedford United Mine: Archaeological Assessment. Cornwall Archaeological Unit Report. 2003RO43. A4 Stapled + Digital. 11.
SDV323598Article in Serial: Richardson, P. H. G.. 1992. The Mines of Dartmoor and the Tamar Valley after 1913. British Mining. 44. A5 Paperback. 139.
SDV336659Report - Assessment: Buck, C.. 2005. Wheal Russell Mine, Devon: Archaeological Assessment. Cornwall County Council Report. 2006R0004. A4 Stapled + Digital. 7-10, 11, 19-50.
SDV336661Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1884. First Edition Ordnance Survey 6 inch Map. Map (Paper).
SDV336662Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1906. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch map. Map (Paper).
SDV336794Worksheet: Weddell, P. J.. 1984. Worksheet.
SDV336795Report - Assessment: Buck, C.. 1998. Preliminary Assessment of Industrial Sites of Archaeological Importance in the Tamar Valley. Cornwall Archaeological Unit Report. A4 Stapled + Digital. 48.
SDV336796Report - Assessment: Smith, J. R.. 2006. Bere Alston to Tavistock Railway: Archaeological Assessment. Cornwall County Council Report. 2006R006. A4 Stapled + Digital. 35.
SDV345554Report - Assessment: Buck, C.. 2010. Stephens Shaft, Morwell, Devon: Archaeological Assessment. Cornwall County Council Report. 2010R033. A4 Stapled + Digital. 14-18.
SDV361789Monograph: Waterhouse, R.. 2017. The Tavistock Canal. Its History and Archaeology. The Tavistock Canal. Its History and Archaeology. Paperback Volume. 185-7, 231-34, Figs 6.38-6.41, 7.19.
SDV62852Monograph: Dines, H. G.. 1956. The Metalliferous Mining Region of South West England. The metalliferous mining region of South West England. Vol 2. Unknown. 674-5.

Associated Monuments

MDV72828Parent of: Adit at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72829Parent of: Adit at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV70485Parent of: ADIT in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV78656Parent of: Barratt's Shaft, Wheal Russell Mine (Monument)
MDV70493Parent of: BUILDING in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV78654Parent of: Buildings at Stephen's Shaft (Monument)
MDV78650Parent of: Buildings or Possible Wheel Pit at Stephen's Shaft (Monument)
MDV70486Parent of: CHIMNEY in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV70494Parent of: East Wheal Luscombe water engine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV78667Parent of: Flat Rods from Wheal Russell Mine to Stephen's Shaft (Monument)
MDV78641Parent of: Hamilton's Shaft, Wheal Russell Mine (Monument)
MDV72836Parent of: Leat at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72836Related to: Leat at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV70490Parent of: LEAT in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV22885Parent of: Maria Shaft, Wheal Russell Mine (Monument)
MDV51096Parent of: Quarry to east of Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV51096Related to: Quarry to east of Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72845Parent of: Reservoir Pond Shaft, Devon Great Consols Railway Incline, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV78655Parent of: Reservoir Pond South-west of Stephen's Shaft (Monument)
MDV72839Parent of: Shaft at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV70491Parent of: SHAFT in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV70492Parent of: SHAFT in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV78645Parent of: Stephen's Shaft Mine Waste Dump, Wheal Russell Mine (Monument)
MDV78638Parent of: Stephen's Shaft, Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72800Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Adit (Monument)
MDV72797Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Aqueduct & Leat (Monument)
MDV72838Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Building & Possible Shaft (Monument)
MDV72773Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Building (Monument)
MDV72795Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Buildings (Monument)
MDV72769Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Costean Pit (Monument)
MDV72793Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Count House, Carpenters Shop & Saw Pit (Monument)
MDV72799Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Dressing Floor & Water Wheel (Monument)
MDV72774Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Great Lode Adit (Monument)
MDV72772Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Leats (Monument)
MDV72772Related to: Wheal Russell Mine, Leats (Monument)
MDV72775Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Magazine & Detonator Store (Monument)
MDV72770Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Matthew Shaft, Spoil Mound & Building (Monument)
MDV72803Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Matthews Shaft (Monument)
MDV72794Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, North Lode Shaft (Monument)
MDV72826Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Openwork (Monument)
MDV72790Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Pond (Monument)
MDV72841Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Possible Shaft or Costean Pit (Monument)
MDV72791Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Powder House (Monument)
MDV72796Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Richard's Shaft (Monument)
MDV52836Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Shaft (Monument)
MDV72801Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Shaft (Monument)
MDV72802Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Smithy & Leat (Monument)
MDV72787Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Spoil Dump (Monument)
MDV72771Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Waterwheel (Monument)
MDV72788Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Wheelpit & Flat Rod Cutting (Monument)
MDV72798Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Wheelpit & Stamps (Monument)
MDV72840Parent of: Wheel pit at Wheal Russell Mine, Fulworthy (Monument)
MDV70487Parent of: WHEEL PIT in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV70489Parent of: WHEEL PIT in the Parish of Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72832Parent of: Wheelpit at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV62831Parent of: Winding Engine House and Boiler House at Stevens Shaft, Gulworthy (Building)
MDV22884Related to: Bedford United Mine, Leat (Monument)
MDV3862Related to: Devon Great Consolidated Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72844Related to: Devon Great Consols Railway, Inclined Plane (Monument)
MDV72766Related to: Devon Great Consols Railway, Quarry (Monument)
MDV72767Related to: Devon Great Consols Railway, Retaining Wall (Monument)
MDV3880Related to: Devon Great Consols, Railway (Monument)
MDV4083Related to: East Wheal Russell Mine (Monument)
MDV70478Related to: Frementor Quarry to Impham Quay, Horse Tramway Line (Monument)
MDV72819Related to: Impham Quay (Monument)
MDV72820Related to: Impham Quay, Buildings (Monument)
MDV72836Parent of: Leat at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72836Related to: Leat at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72842Related to: Quarries at Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72768Related to: Quarry by Devon Great Consols Railway, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV51096Parent of: Quarry to east of Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV51096Related to: Quarry to east of Wheal Russell Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV16802Related to: South Wheal Luscombe Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV123232Related to: Tavistock Canal, Main record (Monument)
MDV72859Related to: Tavistock Canal, Streamwork (Monument)
MDV123502Related to: Wheal Impham Mine, Gulworthy (Monument)
MDV72854Related to: Wheal Russell Mine, Costean Pits (Monument)
MDV72772Parent of: Wheal Russell Mine, Leats (Monument)
MDV72772Related to: Wheal Russell Mine, Leats (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV4040 - Wheal Russell Mine, Devon: Archaeological Assessment
  • EDV4940 - Archaeological Assessment of Stephens Shaft, Morwell, Devon

Date Last Edited:Dec 13 2018 11:56AM