HeritageGateway - Home

Login  |  Register
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Devon & Dartmoor HER Result
Devon & Dartmoor HERPrintable version | About Devon & Dartmoor HER | Visit Devon & Dartmoor HER online...

See important guidance on the use of this record.

If you have any comments or new information about this record, please email us.


HER Number:MDV2590
Name:Shaugh Moor coaxial field system

Summary

Field system on Shaugh Moor; parallel reaves originating at the Saddlesborough Reave to the north. The regular parallel reave system visible over much of the area south of Saddlesborough and west of Collard Tor is attributed to the Middle Bronze Age and may have several constructional phases. Perhaps more relevant is the engulfing of two of the earlier enclosed settlements by the reaves.
Phosphate analysis of the fields south of Saddlesborough Reave and west of Saddlesborough suggests that they were not manured nor were they stock pens for prolonged period.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 553 626
Map Sheet:SX56SE
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishShaugh Prior
DistrictSouth Hams
Ecclesiastical ParishSHAUGH PRIOR

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument 1003824: Barrow near Shaugh Cross
  • Scheduled Monument 1002516: Pound and hut circles N of Hawk's Tor
  • Scheduled Monument 1002520: Hut circles W of Saddlesborough
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • SHINE: Bronze age landscapes on Shaugh Moor and Wooter Moor comprising earthworks and walling of enclosures, hut circles, cairns, stone circles and rows, reaves and field systems, and medieval and post medieval field systems
  • Scheduled Monument 1002516: Pound and hut circles N of Hawk's Tor
  • Scheduled Monument 1002516: Pound and hut circles N of Hawk's Tor

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: SX 56 SE 78
  • National Monuments Record: SX 56 SE 170
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/179
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/180
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/261
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/316
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/466/1
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/467
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/467/1
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/469
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/470
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX56SE/471
  • Old SAM County Ref: 422
  • Old SAM County Ref: 422(PART)
  • Pastscape: 1105322
  • Pastscape: 439328
  • SHINE Candidate (Yes)
  • SHINE Candidate (Yes)
  • SHINE Candidate (Yes)
  • SHINE Candidate (Yes)
  • SHINE Candidate (Yes)
  • SHINE Candidate (Yes)

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • PARALLEL REAVE SYSTEM (Constructed, Middle Bronze Age - 1500 BC to 1001 BC (Between))

Full description

Gawne, E. + Somers Cockes, J. V., 1968, Parallel Reaves of Dartmoor, 277 (Article in Serial). SDV345858.

Study of fields on Shaugh Moor between Saddlesborough (SX 559 632) and Collard Tor (SX 556 621). The field boundaries consist of lines of upstanding stones and raised mounds. Parallel reaves are visible - pre-Saxon land boundaries. A significant centre of settlement in late Bronze Age - Iron Age.

Price, D. G., 1973, Ancient fields on Shaugh Moor, 91 (Article in Serial). SDV147593.

Clearly defined mound which extends from Cadover Road south-east towards Saddlesborough. Construction can be examined in a section cut through it by drainage works. Small boulders set in a matrix of finer sandy material now covered by turf. A number of parallel boundaries or reaves join this mound at right angles and extend south-west for considerable distances. Probably pre-Saxon land boundaries.

National Monuments Record, 1976, NMR SX5563, 3/223, 5/235 (Aerial Photograph). SDV138651.

National Monuments Record, 1978, NMR SX5563, 3 (Aerial Photograph). SDV152488.

Fleming, A., 1978, The Dartmoor Reaves, 52, 133 (Article in Monograph). SDV244362.

Other details: Figures 5, 23.

Fleming, A., 1978, The Prehistoric Landscape of Dartmoor. Part 1: South Dartmoor, 97-123 (Article in Serial). SDV235265.

Part of Shaugh Moor parallel reave system.

Balaam, N. D. + Smith, K. + Wainwright, G. J., 1982, The Shaugh Moor Project: Fourth Report - Environment, Context and Conclusion, 215-219 (Article in Serial). SDV145845.

With the exception of the area immediately surrounding the round house, levels of phosphate within the field system were not significantly different from those in the unenclosed area. It can be concluded that the fields south of Saddlesborough Reave and west of Saddlesborough were not deliberately manured or used for penning stock for any prolonged period. It cannot be assumed that the area was never used in such ways; the low levels of phosphate are more likely to reflect the short life span of the field system than any particular use.

Collis, J., 1983, Field Systems and Boundaries on Shaugh Moor and at Wotter, Dartmoor, 55, 60 figs: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 (Article in Serial). SDV144058.

Field system is secondary to the Saddlesborough main reave (SX56SE-115). One of the banks appears to ride over the reave at SX 5545 6336. Also adjacent to associated houses (SX56SE-117) the reave has been partly dismantled. Four north-south banks are measured at 0.4 - 0.5 metres wide and 0.2 - 0.3 metres high, with occasional orthostatic boulders between 0.5 and 1.0 metres high especially at the northern end. Slight hints of lynchet formation at about SX 5525 6317. Cross banks at SX 554 631 are similar to north-south banks.
A series of banks 0.2 metres wide and 0.1 metre high run at an angle to the rest of the system but seem to be contemporary. Interspersed with these are shallow grooves 0.2 metres wide and 0.1 - 0.2 metres deep. No cross bank at southern end of system, but clear divide in turf type, finer to south. Possibly marked originally by timber fence or hedge. Probably also once a further north-south boundary to the west. Slight lyncheting and soil build up behind house SX56SE-117 suggest some of area was cultivated. Possibly of middle / late Bronze Age date or later.
Shaugh Moor Reave 1. Bank roughly 1 metre wide and 0.2 - 0.3 metres high. Towards its southern end it is merely a scarp, robbed in places. No trace of it across enclosure SX56SE/35 and as it changes angle here the enclosure must predate it one clear gang junction.
Shaugh Moor Reave 7. A substantial bank around 1.0 metre wide and 0.2 - 0.3 metres high. Towards its southern end it is less substantial though maintains bank appearance. Disappears in an area of tracks and hollow ways near Hawks Tor.
At SX 5533 6279 are two small banks running between reave SX56SE-466 and enclosure SX56SE-35. Approximately 0.2 metres wide and 0.1 metre high.
At SX 5519 6280 four lengths of bank (field system 3), around 0.2 metres wide and 0.1 metre high run east-west down the moor south-west of enclosure SX56SE-35.
At SX 5519 6269 a cross bank runs at right angles between reaves SX56SE-466 and SX56SE-467.
Field system 2 (SX 5517 6302) lies around enclosure SX56SE/164 and from its alignment appears to be totally unconnected with the parallel reaves. Heavily disturbed by tracks and robbing. Main north-south bank at its north end starts as a grass bank 1.0 - 1.5 metres wide and 0.3 - 0.4 metres high, but near the enclosure takes an appearance of a lynchet. It continues in this manner to the southern end where it is cut by the modern road. This bank lacks regular facing but there are occasional orthostats, other north-south banks adjacent to the enclosure are also lynchet-like, up to 0.5 - 0.6 metres deep. The northern boundary has been heavily robbed, but other east-west banks consist of single or double lines of boulders, or of slight lynchets.
At SX 5582 6311 within the south-west angle of Saddlesborough main reave (SX56SE/115) and Shaugh Moor reave 7 (SX56SE/261) is an area defined by a shallow channel, perhaps the trace of a timber fence that Collis suggests is a possible enclosure.

Fleming, A., 1984, The Prehistoric Landscape of Dartmoor; Wider Implications, 8 (Article in Serial). SDV320417.

Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1985, Aerial Photograph Project (Dartmoor) - Dartmoor Pre-NMP (Cartographic). SDV319854.

Reave system on Shaugh Moor is partially recorded on the aerial photograph map overlays produced during the project.

Butler, J., 1994, Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume Three - The South-West, 102-105 (Monograph). SDV137656.

Shaugh Moor field system consists of a number of parallel reaves, originating at the Saddlesborough Reave in the north-east of the site and orientated north-east to south-west, where they fade out, although there may be indications of a continuation of the field boundaries in this direction. The area includes a number of Bronze Age enclosures and round houses. To the east the field system has been destroyed by the clay workings; it is unclear to what extent. Other details: Map 48, 4.

Fletcher, M. + Probert, S., 1998, Shaugh Moor, Devon: An Archaeological Survey (Report - Survey). SDV343481.

(02/12/1997) The surviving portion of the reave system is as described by the Ordnance Survey in 1980. It must be noted that the reaves on Shaugh Moor form a single unit, the 'Shaugh Moor parallel reave system' (Fleming 1988, Fig 30) and are not an agglomeration of individual systems as defined by past recorders. The various field systems of prehistoric and later date on Shaugh Moor are summarised in record SX 56 SE 170.
Surveyed at 1:2500 scale.
(04/12/1997) This report is to supplement and replace records SX 56 SE 136 and 137
Centred SX 555630. A series of field systems dating from the prehistoric to the post-medieval occupy some 150 hectares of Shaugh Moor. Four distinct systems are apparent:
The earliest phase seems to be composed of a number of small, enclosed settlements and pounds chiefly to the north of Saddlesborough (see related records)
The regular parallel reave system (mostly SX 56 SE 78) visible over much of the area south of Saddlesborough and west of Collard Tor is attributed to the Middle Bronze Age (Fleming 1988) and has been described at length by Collis (1983) who identified several constructional phases (see SX 56 SE 136 and 137). These are, however, simply details in the overall development of the system. Perhaps more relevant is the engulfing of two of the earlier enclosed settlements by the reaves.
Stone gathering for walls, buildings and roads has effaced many of the prehistoric boundaries on the west and southern margins of Shaugh Moor. However, the complete absence of parallel reaves, and robbing trenches, in the south-west quadrant of the moor would seem to indicate their absence, in stone form at least, in the prehistoric period. It is probably no coincidence that the parallel reaves running north to south from the Saddlesborough area terminate along the projected line of an east to west transverse reave running from Collard Tor. It is also possible that the remains in this area have been buried by peat. For detailed 1:2500 plan and description see ‘Shaugh Moor Survey'.

Gerrard, S., 2004, List of Sites Remaining to be Considered for Designation on Dartmoor (Un-published). SDV345444.

This site was considered for designation as a Scheduled Ancient Monument during the Monument Protection Programme. The programme ended before the entire list of sites was successfully scheduled so this is included on a local list of Nationally Important Sites.

English Heritage, 2005-2008, Prehistoric Survey Information (Report - Survey). SDV345521.

Terminal reave and elements of the Shaugh Moor parallel reave system. The surviving fragments of this, originally much larger, field system were surveyed at a scale of 1:2500 by the RCHME Exeter Office in the winter of 1997/8. Map object based on this Source.

GeoInformation Group Ltd, 2010, 1:625 2010 Colour (12.5cm resolution) (Aerial Photograph). SDV346026.

Field boundaries visible on the aerial photography.

Various, 2018-2019, PALs Condition Recording forms, SM16-17, SM21-23 (Worksheet). SDV362781.

(Site SM16) Visited 04/08/2019. Reave clearly visible in landscape. 80% of section of reave in question as circled on map has low height bracken on top. Elsewhere bracken and grass covers the reave and is grazed by animals. Track / path running along the east side of the reave has small amounts of bare earth over a short section thought to be caused by farm vehicles. As the site is on the edge of the China Clay works area it is lightly visited by walkers on the path.
Although scores 7 due to vegetation the site is stable. Photo taken.
(Site SM17) Visited 03/08/2019. This section of parallel reave followed from the boundary reave. The reave area circled on the map is less distinct than the reave further up the slope towards boundary reave. A lightly used walking /animal path on the east side of reave, but no damage occurring to the reave. The site is stable. Photo taken.
(Site SM20) Visited 03/08/2019. The reave is distinct and intact, easy to follow from the corner of the boundary reave. However after the intersection of the drain the reave peters out as it gets closer to the road, becoming harder to follow in coarse and thick bracken. The reave ends as shown on map just past the intersection with the path. The end of reave looking up the line of reave is totally obscured by vegetation at this time. At the intersection of the path and the path coming off and following the reave, areas of bare earth are visible on either side of this small end section of the reave.
90% of reave is stable but the end section has some wear due to the path junction. Photo taken.
(Site SM21) Visited 04/09/2019. There have been a number of PAL surveys conducted along the length of this reave. This survey concentrates on the section where the reave adjoins the Saddlesborough terminal reave. Both reaves are clearly identifiable in the landscape. There is bracken growing along the line of both reaves with low height gorse between the bracken. The area is lightly grazed and frequented by walkers but no damage caused. There are two large (1.1meter long x 0.75meter high) & (0.6meter long x 0.84meter high) standing stones in the parallel reave looking towards the junction with the terminal reave. Photo taken.
(Site SM23) Visited 04/09/2019. Due to the extreme vegetation (tall bracken and gorse) over the area marked on the map for the survey of this section of the reave, continuous reave lines could not be confirmed. Although sections of possible reaves were found it is difficult to confirm if these are the ones referred to on the map. Surveying at a different time of year would give a better outcome. Although vegetation is dense no damage is obvious in the area. Photo taken.

Various, 2018-2019, PALs Condition Recording photographs (Photograph). SDV363073.

(Site SM16) Visited 04/08/2019. Photo taken looking south west showing the uppermost surviving reave on Shaugh Moor.
(Site SM17) Visited 03/08/2019. Photo taken looking north north east along the line of the reave.
(Site SM20) Visited 03/08/2019. Photo taken looking north east. Photograph taken at the end of the reave looking up the line of reave which is totally obscured by vegetation at this time. Photograph also shows the intersection of the path and the path coming off and following the reave, showing areas of bare earth on either side of this small end section of reave.
(Site SM21) Visited 04/09/2019. Photo taken looking north east looking along the parallel reave towards Saddlesborough terminal reave showing two large standing stones.
(Site SM23) Visited 04/09/2019. Photo taken looking north east looking along the possible line of the reave through the dense bracken.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV137656Monograph: Butler, J.. 1994. Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume Three - The South-West. Dartmoor Atlas of Antiquities: Volume Three - The South-West. Three. Paperback Volume. 102-105.
SDV138651Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. 1976. NMR SX5563. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 3/223, 5/235.
SDV144058Article in Serial: Collis, J.. 1983. Field Systems and Boundaries on Shaugh Moor and at Wotter, Dartmoor. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 41. A5 Paperback. 55, 60 figs: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7.
SDV145845Article in Serial: Balaam, N. D. + Smith, K. + Wainwright, G. J.. 1982. The Shaugh Moor Project: Fourth Report - Environment, Context and Conclusion. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 48. A4 Bound. 215-219.
SDV147593Article in Serial: Price, D. G.. 1973. Ancient fields on Shaugh Moor. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 105. Unknown. 91.
SDV152488Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. 1978. NMR SX5563. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 3.
SDV235265Article in Serial: Fleming, A.. 1978. The Prehistoric Landscape of Dartmoor. Part 1: South Dartmoor. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 44. Unknown. 97-123.
SDV244362Article in Monograph: Fleming, A.. 1978. The Dartmoor Reaves. Early Land Allotment in the British Isles. Unknown. 52, 133.
SDV319854Cartographic: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. 1985. Aerial Photograph Project (Dartmoor) - Dartmoor Pre-NMP. Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England Aerial Photograph P. Cartographic.
SDV320417Article in Serial: Fleming, A.. 1984. The Prehistoric Landscape of Dartmoor; Wider Implications. Landscape History. 6. Unknown. 8.
SDV343481Report - Survey: Fletcher, M. + Probert, S.. 1998. Shaugh Moor, Devon: An Archaeological Survey. Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England Report. Unknown. [Mapped feature: #122242 ]
SDV345444Un-published: Gerrard, S.. 2004. List of Sites Remaining to be Considered for Designation on Dartmoor. Digital.
SDV345521Report - Survey: English Heritage. 2005-2008. Prehistoric Survey Information. English Heritage. Digital.
SDV345858Article in Serial: Gawne, E. + Somers Cockes, J. V.. 1968. Parallel Reaves of Dartmoor. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 100. A5 Hardback. 277.
SDV346026Aerial Photograph: GeoInformation Group Ltd. 2010. 1:625 2010 Colour (12.5cm resolution). 2010 Aerial Photographs. Digital.
SDV362781Worksheet: Various. 2018-2019. PALs Condition Recording forms. PALs Condition Assessment Project Forms. Digital. SM16-17, SM21-23.
SDV363073Photograph: Various. 2018-2019. PALs Condition Recording photographs. PALs Condition Assessment Project Forms. Digital.

Associated Monuments

MDV2446Parent of: Enclosure 500 metres east of Huxton Farm (Monument)
MDV48882Parent of: Hut circle in enclosure 435 meters east of Huxton Farm (Monument)
MDV48872Parent of: Hut circle in reave system on Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV43443Parent of: Hut circle in reave system west of Saddlesborough (Monument)
MDV2575Parent of: Hut circle in settlement west of Saddlesborough (Monument)
MDV2575Related to: Hut circle in settlement west of Saddlesborough (Monument)
MDV2449Parent of: HUT CIRCLE in the Parish of Shaugh Prior (Monument)
MDV28536Parent of: HUT CIRCLE in the Parish of Shaugh Prior (Monument)
MDV43444Parent of: Hut circle on Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV2448Parent of: Hut within enclosure on Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV48895Parent of: Hut within enclosure on Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV14305Parent of: Pair of hut circles with bank, Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV14305Related to: Pair of hut circles with bank, Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV12949Parent of: Prehistoric enclosure 430 meters east of Huxton Farm (Monument)
MDV126636Related to: Enclosures east of Collard Tor (Monument)
MDV2575Parent of: Hut circle in settlement west of Saddlesborough (Monument)
MDV2575Related to: Hut circle in settlement west of Saddlesborough (Monument)
MDV43445Related to: Hut circle on Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV2591Related to: Medieval field system north of Wotter (Monument)
MDV14305Parent of: Pair of hut circles with bank, Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV14305Related to: Pair of hut circles with bank, Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV2447Related to: Part of reave system east of Huxton Farm, Shaugh Moor (Monument)
MDV2573Related to: Saddlesborough Reave, Shaugh Moor (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV4967 - Survey of Shaugh Moor
  • EDV6800 - Shaugh Moor Project Pollen Analysis of Peat Deposits

Date Last Edited:Oct 14 2019 12:27PM