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HER Number:MDV42120
Name:Roman Fort at Cudmore Farm, Bampton


Roman fort to north-east of Cudmore Farm survives as a rectangular enclosure bounded by a single rampart and 4 outer ditches, the latter surviving as buried features. Visible as cropmarks on 1940s and late 1980s and 1990s aerial photographs.


Grid Reference:ST 007 219
Map Sheet:ST02SW
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBampton
Civil ParishClayhanger
DistrictMid Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishCLAYHANGER
Ecclesiastical ParishBAMPTON

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: 975941
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: ST02SW/41
  • Old SAM Ref: 22231

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • FORT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD (Between))

Full description

National Monuments Record, ST0021, 1-20 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344351.

National Monuments Record, ST0022, 1-2 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344352.

McManamon, T.F., 11/08/1994, Further Information for SMR (Correspondence). SDV359095.

Royal Air Force, 1946 - 1949, Royal Air Force Aerial Photographs (Aerial Photograph). SDV342938.

Earthworks of Roman fort visible, particularly those of the western side of the fort.

Record, J., 1980 - 1989, Untitled Source (Aerial Photograph). SDV344346.

Photographs of site taken in earlier 1980's by John Record.

Griffith, F. M., 1989, DAP/MD, 1-6 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344343.

Griffith, F. M., 1989, DAP/MK, 5-8 (Aerial Photograph). SDV340174.

Griffith, F. M., 1989, DAP/MW, 2-4 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344344.

Griffith, F. M., 1989, DAP/NR, 3-4 (Aerial Photograph). SDV343379.

Griffith, F. M., 1989, DAP/OG, 9-10 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344341.

Griffith, F. M., 1989, DAP/OY, 8-9 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344342.

Griffith, F. M., 1990, DAP/QQ, 10-13 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344340.

Griffith, F. M., 1990, DAP/TN (Aerial Photograph). SDV344339.

Griffith, F. M., 1991, DAP/UJ, 6-8 (Aerial Photograph). SDV337966.

Frere, S. S., 1991, Roman Britain in 1990, 281 (Article in Serial). SDV118217.

Clayhanger roman fort located by aerial photography by F. M. Griffith in 1989. Internal dimensions are circa 100 metres by 110 metres, enclosing 1.1 hectares, and across the four ditches are circa 150 metres by 160 metres. The rampart survives above ground over much of the site.

Horner, W., 1992, DAP/VE, 000-4 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344345.

Horner, B., 1992, DAP/VQ, 6-9 (Aerial Photograph). SDV292050.

Gerrard, S., 1992, Roman Fort 300 Metres North-east of Cudmore Farm (Un-published). SDV344337.

Site visited during 1992. Roman fort situated on an east facing promontory overlooking the valley of a small tributary of the river Batherm. Survives as a rectangular enclosure measuring 103 metres north-south by 96 metres east-west, bounded by a 8 metres wide single rampart standing up to 1 metre high and 4 outer ditches which survive only as buried features. Within the fort, the cropmarks of a number of features were visible during the summer of 1992 and these must represent contemporary buildings. Fieldwalking has recovered sherds of roman tile and a single fragment of samian.

Horner, W., 1992, Untitled Source (Aerial Photograph). SDV344364.

Griffith, F. M., 1994, DAP/XE, 12-15 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344358.

Department of National Heritage, 1994, Roman Fort 300 Metres North-east of Cudmore Farm (Schedule Document). SDV344338.

The Roman fort 300 metres north-east of Cudmore Farm survives well and is an outstanding example of its class. Roman forts are rare in the south-west of England and this fort is considered to represent the best surviving example in the region.

Horner, B., 1995, DAP/ZA, 25-27 (Aerial Photograph). SDV323422.

Griffith, F. M., 1995, Developments in the Study of Roman Military Sites in South-west England, 362, 365 (Article in Monograph). SDV344349.

Horner, W., 1995, Untitled Source (Aerial Photograph). SDV344365.

Horner, W., 1996, DAP/ABA, 28-29 (Aerial Photograph). SDV344350.

Griffith, F. M., 1996, DAP/ZW, 6-7 (Aerial Photograph). SDV321043.

Miller, A., 1996, RCHME Aerial Photograph Primary Recording Project (Interpretation). SDV53184.

A rapid examination of air photography shows the cropmarks and soilmarks of this fort. The fort appears to have three ditches, with a fourth ditch on its west side (this does not appear to continue around the east side of the fort, but this would receive some protection from the adjacent stream valley). There appear to be possible entrances on the west and north sides, with gaps through the inner two ditches (the west entrance is fairly central, the north is closer towards the east side), however, neither entrance appears to have a corresponding gap in the outer, third ditch, and the western entrance has no gap in the fourth ditch. This may suggest that the fort is of more than one phase. The western half of the fort was under pasture between 1989 and 1992, while the eastern half was being ploughed, although the rampart on the eastern side is still evident as a raised feature.

Sampson, M., 1996, Roman Fort - Bampton and Clayhanger Parishes (Correspondence). SDV344348.

Ground photo taken on 20th July 1996 records south-west corner of the fort ditch circuit as parchmarks, which clearly show three ditches. Rectangular parchmarks have also been seen within the ditches. Other details: Photograph.

Horner, B., 1996, Untitled Source (Aerial Photograph). SDV344366.

Horner, W., 1998, Untitled Source (Ground Photograph). SDV344357.

Horner, W., 1998, Untitled Source (Personal Comment). SDV344353.

Site visit on 7th May 1998. Both halves of fort currently under pasture.

National Monuments Record, 2010, 975941 (National Monuments Record Database). SDV344355.

Cropmarks of a Roman Fort 300 metres north east of Cudmore Farm. Scheduled.

English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West, 98 (Report - non-specific). SDV355280.

Condition unknown. Declining. Principal vulnerability arable ploughing.

Hegarty, C., 2013, Comments arising from the transcription of the cropmarks and earthworks of the Roman Fort at Cudmore Farm, Clayhanger (Interpretation). SDV358435.

The Roman Fort at Cudmore Farm, Clayhanger, is visible on aerial photographs and digital images derived from lidar as earthwork banks cropmarks of ditches. The inner ramparts survive as low earthwork banks up to 11 metres wide, defining a roughly square area with rounded corners measuring circa 90 metres to a side. Three outer enclosing ditches are visible as cropmarks 2 to 3 metres apart, each cropmark ditch up to approximately three metres wide. This extends the visible plan of the fort up to circa 140 metres across. Breaks in the cropmark ditches on the west, east and northern sides might be evidence of entrances.
A possible fourth ditch is visible on the western side of the fort, potentially extending the plan of the Fort to over 160 metres. This outer ditch might have been superseded by an annexe to the north and east, recorded separately.
A transcription of the Fort earthworks has been produced from the evidence visible on a range of DAP photographs, previously noted within the monument record, and digital images derived from lidar data.

Scott, J., 28/06/1991, Clayhanger Fort and Zeal Farm (Correspondence). SDV56440.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV118217Article in Serial: Frere, S. S.. 1991. Roman Britain in 1990. Britannia. 22. Unknown. 281.
SDV292050Aerial Photograph: Horner, B.. 1992. DAP/VQ. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 6-9.
SDV321043Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1996. DAP/ZW. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 6-7.
SDV323422Aerial Photograph: Horner, B.. 1995. DAP/ZA. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 25-27.
SDV337966Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1991. DAP/UJ. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 6-8.
SDV340174Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1989. DAP/MK. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 5-8.
SDV342938Aerial Photograph: Royal Air Force. 1946 - 1949. Royal Air Force Aerial Photographs. Royal Air Force Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Digital).
SDV343379Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1989. DAP/NR. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 3-4.
SDV344337Un-published: Gerrard, S.. 1992. Roman Fort 300 Metres North-east of Cudmore Farm. Monument Protection Programme. Archaeological Item Dataset.. Digital.
SDV344338Schedule Document: Department of National Heritage. 1994. Roman Fort 300 Metres North-east of Cudmore Farm. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV344339Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1990. DAP/TN. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper).
SDV344340Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1990. DAP/QQ. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 10-13.
SDV344341Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1989. DAP/OG. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 9-10.
SDV344342Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1989. DAP/OY. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 8-9.
SDV344343Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1989. DAP/MD. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 1-6. [Mapped feature: #111880 ]
SDV344344Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1989. DAP/MW. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 2-4.
SDV344345Aerial Photograph: Horner, W.. 1992. DAP/VE. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 000-4.
SDV344346Aerial Photograph: Record, J.. 1980 - 1989. Unknown.
SDV344348Correspondence: Sampson, M.. 1996. Roman Fort - Bampton and Clayhanger Parishes. Letter and Photograph. A4 Single Sheet.
SDV344349Article in Monograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1995. Developments in the Study of Roman Military Sites in South-west England. Roman Frontier Studies. Unknown. 362, 365.
SDV344350Aerial Photograph: Horner, W.. 1996. DAP/ABA. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 28-29.
SDV344351Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. ST0021. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 1-20.
SDV344352Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. ST0022. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 1-2.
SDV344353Personal Comment: Horner, W.. 1998.
SDV344355National Monuments Record Database: National Monuments Record. 2010. 975941. National Monuments Record Index. Website.
SDV344357Ground Photograph: Horner, W.. 1998. Slide.
SDV344358Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1994. DAP/XE. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 12-15.
SDV344364Aerial Photograph: Horner, W.. 1992. Slide.
SDV344365Aerial Photograph: Horner, W.. 1995. Slide.
SDV344366Aerial Photograph: Horner, B.. 1996. Slide.
SDV355280Report - non-specific: English Heritage. 2011. Heritage at Risk Register 2011: South West. english Heritage. Digital. 98.
SDV358435Interpretation: Hegarty, C.. 2013. Comments arising from the transcription of the cropmarks and earthworks of the Roman Fort at Cudmore Farm, Clayhanger.
SDV359095Correspondence: McManamon, T.F.. 11/08/1994. Further Information for SMR. Letter + photocopy photos. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV53184Interpretation: Miller, A.. 1996. RCHME Aerial Photograph Primary Recording Project. RCHME Aerial Photograph Primary Recording Project. Map (Paper).
SDV56440Correspondence: Scott, J.. 28/06/1991. Clayhanger Fort and Zeal Farm. Letter. A4 Single Sheet + Digital.

Associated Monuments

MDV56911Parent of: Features at Cudmore Farm Roman Fort, Bampton (Monument)
MDV42121Related to: Annexe to Roman Fort at Cudmore Farm, Bampton (Monument)
MDV122173Related to: Roman Road between Dark Lane and Denscombe Mill, Clayhanger (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded

Date Last Edited:Jun 13 2018 3:28PM