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HER Number:MDV43176
Name:Building 2: Incorporating Mill at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory

Summary

Building 2: Incorporating or composition mill built in the 19th century at Powder Mills gunpowder factory

Location

Grid Reference:SX 628 775
Map Sheet:SX67NW
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishDartmoor Forest
DistrictWest Devon
Ecclesiastical ParishLYDFORD

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX67NW/51/2
  • Old SAM Ref: 28718

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • INCORPORATING MILL (XVIII to XIX - 1800 AD to 1900 AD (Between))

Full description

Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1979, SX67NW99 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV350197.


Pye, A. R. + Robinson, R., 1990, An Archaeological Survey of the Gunpowder Factory at Powdermills Farm, Postbridge, Devon, 20-22, Figures 6,8, Plates 5-6,12-14 (Report - Survey). SDV254157.

Building 2: Incorporating or composition mill at Powder Mills gunpowder factory. Same basic character and form as 'Building 1'. However, tar drips indicate that either it was not gable ended, or the gable ends were constructed of timber of lesser width than the walls below. Units (A) and (B) flank a wheelpit. Unit (B) is a mirror image of unit (A). The bedding for the wheel axle within the opening through the south wall is very well preserved beneath the turf. The granite has been highly polished by one of the cog-wheels. Central granite machine setting less complete than unit (A). Indication of first floor western doorway not matched in the east wall, though this may be masked by secondary rendering. Unit (A) has ground floor openings to the south and west. Inside a series of granite blocks runs east to west across the centre. The central one bears an impression of a machine setting. At first floor level are openings in the east and west walls, possibly originally with doors flush with the walls.Wheelpit similar to that in 'Building 1'. To the west the outflow exists through a culvert, which appears to be of secondary build to units (A) and (B). Outflow continues west in the form of a leat, towards 'Building 3'.


Pye, A., 1996, The Gunpowder Factory at Powdermills, 221 (Article in Serial). SDV254160.


Gerradrd, S., 1998, 149176 (Un-published). SDV257727.

Incorporating or composition mill forming part of the gunpowder factory at Powder Mills.


National Monuments Record, 1999, 442786 (National Monuments Record Database). SDV248155.


Ordnance Survey, 2012, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV348725.

Building shown on modern mapping.


English Heritage, 2012, National Heritage List for England (National Heritage List for England). SDV348729.

Ruins of gunpowder mill. Established in 1844 by a Plymouth alderman George Frean. Originally quite an extensive complex of buildings running up the valley with several water wheels turned by water from a leat and with 2 chimneys. All the buildings are now in varying degrees of ruin although one chimney survives and 3 main groups are recognisable of granite rubble with granite lintels, all roofless. The chimney is well constructed with stringcourse near the top and plinth. It has a covered channel running downhill from it towards the largest ruinous building. The invention of dynamite in 1867 rapidly superceded gunpowder. and the mills, which employed about 100 men closed in the 1890s.


English Heritage, 9/10/1981, Gunpowder factory at Powder Mills (Schedule Document). SDV350194.

A gunpowder factory established in 1844 by George Frean, and remained in use until 1897, when it closed as a result of increasing competition from dynamite and a slump in local mining activity. The production of gunpowder involved combining a mixture of saltpetre, sulphur and charcoal and the buildings in which the different stages of the process were carried out survive at Powder Mills. The process was inherently dangerous and to reduce the chances of cataclysmic explosions, the buildings were situated at a safe distance from each other and each had a flimsy roof which would have allowed any explosion to be carried upwards. Amongst the buildings identified at Powder Mills are: grinding mills; blending mills; incorporating mills; a range of buildings where the gunpowder was broken, pressed, corned, dried, dusted and glazed; and finally charge magazines.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV248155National Monuments Record Database: National Monuments Record. 1999. 442786. National Monuments Record Database. Website.
SDV254157Report - Survey: Pye, A. R. + Robinson, R.. 1990. An Archaeological Survey of the Gunpowder Factory at Powdermills Farm, Postbridge, Devon. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. 90.07. A4 Grip Bound. 20-22, Figures 6,8, Plates 5-6,12-14.
SDV254160Article in Serial: Pye, A.. 1996. The Gunpowder Factory at Powdermills. Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society. 52. Paperback Volume. 221.
SDV257727Un-published: Gerradrd, S.. 1998. 149176. Monument Protection Programme.
SDV348725Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2012. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital). [Mapped feature: #91605 ]
SDV348729National Heritage List for England: English Heritage. 2012. National Heritage List for England. Website.
SDV350194Schedule Document: English Heritage. 9/10/1981. Gunpowder factory at Powder Mills. The Schedule of Monuments. Website.
SDV350197Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1979. SX67NW99. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.

Associated Monuments

MDV5913Part of: Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory, Cherry Brook (Monument)
MDV43175Related to: Building 1: Incorporating Mill at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43184Related to: Building 10: Store Building at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43185Related to: Building 11: Glazing Mill at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43186Related to: Building 12: Breaking House at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43187Related to: Building 13: Press House at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43188Related to: Building 14: Incorporating Mills at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43189Related to: Building 15: Mixing House at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43190Related to: Building 16: Office or Store at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43191Related to: Building 17: Saltpetre Crystallising House at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43192Related to: Building 18: Group of Buildings Including a Cylinder House and Chimney at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Monument)
MDV43177Related to: Building 3: Incorporating Mill at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43178Related to: Building 4: Charge Magazine at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43179Related to: Building 5: Charge Magazine at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43180Related to: Building 6: Charge Magazine at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43181Related to: Building 7: Gunpowder Drying House at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43182Related to: Building 8: Charge Magazine at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43183Related to: Building 9: Building with Several Elements at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Building)
MDV43194Related to: Reservoir to the north-east of Building 2 at Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Monument)
MDV43195Related to: Reservoir to the west of Powder Mills Gunpowder Factory (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV6029 - An Archaeological Survey of the Gunpowder Factory at Powdermills Farm

Date Last Edited:Aug 8 2014 11:12AM