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HER Number:MDV497
Name:Long Bridge or Bideford Bridge, Bideford

Summary

A bridge over the Torridge was probably first constructed in the late 13th century and was to be the lowest dry crossing point until the Torridge Bridge was built in the 20th century. The original bridge was of timber and converted to stone between 1460 and 1530. The bridge was widened several times in the 19th and 20th centuries. Work in 1925 revealed the original timber piers inside the later stonework which explains the irregular spacing of the arches.

Location

Grid Reference:SS 455 264
Map Sheet:SS42NE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishBideford
DistrictTorridge
Ecclesiastical ParishBIDEFORD

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SS42NE/11
  • Old Listed Building Ref (I): 375732

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • BRIDGE (First built, XIII to XV - 1201 AD to 1500 AD (Between))

Full description

Unknown, 403/14 (Ground Photograph). SDV18908.

Devon County Council, Bideford Bridge, 29 (Ground Photograph). SDV340996.

Devon County Council, Bideford Bridge, 5/28 (Ground Photograph). SDV18922.

Torridge District Council, Bideford Conservation Area Partnership Scheme. Action Plan for 1996-1999, 3 (Un-published). SDV345901.

Torridge District Council, Bideford Heritage Economic Regeneration Scheme. Implementation Programme 1999-2002, 2 (Un-published). SDV345902.

Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Untitled Source (Unknown). SDV18889.

Scheduled Monument Consent granted for floodlighting of arches.

Watkins, J., 1792, History of Bideford, 26, 142 (Monograph). SDV319968.

The bridge, which is the largest in Devonshire, and is a very noble work, considering the age in which it was built, has 24 arches of different size. The stones are common, the greater number of which were dug out of quarries in the adjacent parish of Landcross, just above the bridge. Other details: Cited by Meade.

Frith, F., 1860-1880, Polacker Jane and Mary below Bideford Bridge (Ground Photograph). SDV340999.

Worthy, C., 1884, Notes - Genealogical and Historical - Being a Second Essay towards a History of Bideford, 676 (Article in Serial). SDV18900.

During the reign of Edward IV, Thomas Redwyn gave a rent charge of 12d form his tenement and courtlage near Page Lane, Barnstaple, for the benefit of Bideford Bridge and John Aps devised a tenement in High Street, Barum, for the repair of Barnstaple Bridge, but with a charge of 4s at Michaelmas to the Bridge Wardens of Bideford.

Department of National Heritage, 19/04/1993, Bideford, 22 (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV338459.

Bideford Bridge including parapet walls and gates of eastern abutment. Bridge across River Torridge. Probably 15th century, encasing timbers of a wooden bridge originally built in late 13th century. Widened to include footpaths in 1795-1810. Further widened to provide double carriageway by Thomas Page of London in 1867. Parapets and cutwaters rebuilt in 1925. Stone rubble with dressed stone voussoirs. Parapets of reinforced concrete and rough-faced coursed stone blocks with copings of dressed stone. Granite piers. Consists of 24 pointed arches of differing widths, believed to result from its timber origins. On either side of each one is a segmental arch added to carry the footpaths of 1795-1810. Parapets of 1925 project on reinforced concrete cantilevers. Each parapet carries 6 iron lamp-standards on concrete pedestals; these closely resemble the originals of 1925, although their tops are late 20th century. The eastern abutment retains the parapet-walls of 1867 with chamfered copings. On each side is a pair of octagonal granite gate-piers, the shafts with trefoil headed panels; pyramidal caps with coved bases, the east pier on each side with an ornate iron lampholder on top; each side has original iron gates decorated with scrollwork. Matching gate pier at west end of north parapet. At 678 feet the 'Long Bridge' is reckoned to be the longest in Devon (Barnstaple Bridge is 530 feet). Bishop Quinil of Exeter (1280-91) is said to have granted indulgences to those contributing to its building. Bishop Stapeldon left it 40s in his will of 1327. Late 14th and early 15th century bishops granted indulgences towards its rebuilding or repair, but a Papal letter of 1459 describes it as being of wood. Leland (circa 1535-43) is the first to describe it as built of stone. Timbers were found encased in the masonry during the alterations of 1925; one of them is preserved in Bideford Public Library. In the Middle Ages there was a chapel at each end of the bridge: St Anne on the east, Allhallows on the west.

Amery, P. F. S., 1900-1901, A Tour across Dartmoor into North Devon by the Rev. John Swete 1789, 169 (Article in Serial). SDV18670.

Grenville, R., 1902, A History of the Church at Bideford and Some of its Rectors, 209 (Article in Serial). SDV18902.

Duncan, A.G., 1902, The Long Bridge of Bideford, 223 (Article in Serial). SDV18904.

Sir Douglas Fox & Partners, 1913, Bideford Bridge Report (Report - non-specific). SDV352298.

Bideford Bridge was constructed about 600 years ago as a packhorse bridge, having a width between the parapets of about 10 feet. The original bridge is still intact and forms an essential part of the existing structure though its main features are somewhat obscured behind the additions of later periods.
Built of local sandstone. It comprises 25 arches of varying width, although one has now been infilled, with piers from 9 feet to 12 feet thick. The 'sterlings' appear to be an additional external protection to the piers. The piers are founded on firm sand overlying rock about 11 feet below.
The bridge was widened about 100 years ago due to the increase in wheeled transport. About 50 years ago iron girders to support footwalks were added. Gas and water pipelines fund beneath the roadway.
See report for further details and recommendations for repair.

Chope, R. P., 1922 - 1923, Old Bideford Bridge, 240 (Article in Serial). SDV18895.

A papal letter of 1459 enjoins people to give money towards the upkeep of the bridge and the two chapels on it.

Chope, R. P., 1924 - 1925, Old Bideford Bridge, 61-65: Plate (Article in Serial). SDV18915.

Unknown, 1925 - 1977, Bideford Bridge (Unattributed Sites and Monuments Register Entry). SDV340995.

Bideford Bridge. Originally built of oak. Main supports built up from a timber plate resting on a rough stone foundation. Evidence of a bridge over the Torridge prior to 14th century. A writ of Edward III on June 11th 1342 mentions the chapel of St Thomas the Martyr as situated at the east end of the bridge. Bishop Stafford on 5th Dec 1396 granted an indulgence to all true penitents who should assist "ad reconstructionem seu reparacionem longi pontis de bydeford". Extensive repairs to the old bridge were necessary.40 years later the bridge had so deteriorated that it had to be rebuilt entirely. Bishop Lacey promulgated two Acts of Grace 24/5/1437 and 28/6/1444 "ad novam constructionem seu sustentationem seu reparationem pontis de bydeford". Two chapels, one at each end (Chapel of All Saints circa 1280 and Chapel of St. Anne). Bridge widened between 1795 and 1815 and 1865. At the first widening round arches were carried between the projecting butresses on each side to support footpaths. In 1865 brackets were thrown out on which were placed new footpaths with an iron railing, the width of the old footpaths being thrown into the road. In the last widening of 1925, some of the old wood was built into the masonry: there has also been a further extension of the roadway. Historically, the bridge has always been famous.

Office of Works, 1926, Bideford Bridge, DV122 (Schedule Document). SDV341009.

A 14th century bridge with 24 pointed arches and 677 feet in length. In medieval times the bridge had a chapel at each end, dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury (east) and St. (west) (sic). The bridge has always been in the care of trustees. It was widened between 1795 and 1815 and again in 1865 and last year. At the first widening round arches were carried between the projecting buttresses on each side to support footpaths. In 1865 brackets were thrown out each side, on which were placed new footpaths with an iron railing, the width of the old footpaths being thrown into the road. The last widening has resulted in a further extension of the roadway. Historically the bridge has always been famous.

Doe, G. M., 1926, North Devon in Elizabethan Times, 244 (Article in Serial). SDV18913.

Provision made in early 17th century for maintenance of Bideford Bridge.

Chope, R. P., 1926 - 1927, Barrel Organ in Hartland Church, 93, 94, 96 (Article in Serial). SDV15407.

Bideford Bridge was still a wooden structure in 1459. A bequest was made for the maintenance of the bridge in the will of Bishop Stapledon of 1326. Indulgences were also granted by Bishop Stafford in 1399, and by Bishop Lacy in 1425 and 1437 for its repair, rebuilding or maintenance.

Boyle, V. C., 1932, The Bideford Polackers, 113 (Article in Serial). SDV15290.

19th century vessels built at Sea Locks were brought down through the widest arch (26 foot) of the masonry bridge.

Johnson, F. M., 1933, British Bridges. An Illustrated Technical and Historical Record, 60-61 (Monograph). SDV18909.

Henderson, C. + Jervoise, E., 1938, Old Devon Bridges, 92 (Monograph). SDV2296.

Whiting, F. E., 1948, Bideford Bridge, 127-136; Pl 9-15 (Article in Serial). SDV18901.

Pill, D. H., 1966, The Administration of the Diocese of Exeter under Bishop Veysey, 267 (Article in Serial). SDV356.

Holt, H. P., 1970, Bideford Long Bridge. A Salvage Operation (Article in Serial). SDV363330.

A 24 span stone-built bridge over the River Torridge dating from the late 15th century which was one of the finest medieval bridges in the country. It was built over an earlier wooden bridge. The oak timbers were incorporated within its construction which dictated the spacing of the piers. The bridge was strengthened and widened circa 1790 and again in the 1860s and in 1924-5.
When the most westerly pier collapsed in January 1968 its repair provided the opportunity to widen and strengthen the bridge again, including the foundations, and to improve its western approach, but preserving the irregular length of the spans and styling of the earlier bridge.

Department of Environment, 1973, Bideford Borough (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV15283.

Devon County Council, 1975, Bideford Town Trail, 77 (Article in Monograph). SDV352469.

Timms, S. C., 1976, The Devon Urban Survey, 1976. First Draft, 90, 92, 96 (Report - Survey). SDV341346.

A bridge over the Torridge was probably first constructed in the late 13th century. Custodians of the bridge are recorded in 1323 and the bridge trust continued to exist until the 20th century. The original bridge was of timber and converted to stone between 1460 and 1530. The bridge was widened several times in the 19th and 20th centuries. Work in 1925 revealed the original timber piers inside the later stonework which explained the irregular spacing of the arches.

Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1977, SS42NE15, Photo (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV18907.

1. Bideford Bridge is said to have been built in 1315 by Sir Theobald Grenville, and was mentioned in the will of Bishop Stapledon in 1326. It was originally constructed of oak with chapels at each end. The stone bridge was built between 1459 and 1474, over and around the wooden bridge, and original oak was found within the masonry during reconstruction work in 1925. Most of the present stonework belongs to the various necessary repairs especially the widening of 1865. The bridge is 677 feet long with 24 arches, and is a most impressive structure
2. A fine structure, marred by various widenings and repairs apart from those of 1925 and 1865. An information board states that it was also widened or altered in 1793, 1810 and 1969.

Meade, H. M., 1977, Unknown (Worksheet). SDV7312.

Griffith, F. M., 1985, FP 6a, 6a (Aerial Photograph). SDV18918.

Griffith, F. M., 1987, IU 3, 3 (Aerial Photograph). SDV18927.

Department of Environment, 1987, Proposed Works at Bideford Long Bridge (Correspondence). SDV18923.

Department of Environment, 1988, Bideford, 1 (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV18919.

Replaced wooden bridge probably C15. 24 pointed arches of differed widths widened by addition of footpaths in 1865. Scheduled AM.

Department of Environment, 1988, Proposed Works at Bideford Long Bridge (Correspondence). SDV18924.

Scheduled Monument Consent granted for replacement of lanterns with reproduction period lanterns.

Department of Environment, 1990, Proposed Works at Bideford Bridge (Correspondence). SDV341013.

Scheduled Monument Consent granted for repointing of masonry.

Pye, A. R. + Simpson, S. J., 1991, Bideford Waterfront NRA Tidal Defence Scheme: Historical Survey and Part 1 Archaeological Survey (Report - Survey). SDV15240.

Department of National Heritage, 1992, Proposed Works at Bideford Bridge (Correspondence). SDV18898.

Scheduled Monument Consent granted for repointing various elevations.

Weddell, P. J., 1993, Archaeological Assessment of a Development Site at Mill Street/Queen Street, Bideford, 3-4 (Report - Assessment). SDV18954.

Griffith, F. M., 1995, DAP/YL, 8-11 (Aerial Photograph). SDV13556.

Exeter Archaeology, 1996, Archaeological Assessment of the DCC Bideford East-the-Water Industrial Link Road, 2 (Report - Assessment). SDV18926.

Horner, B., 1999, ACF 8-10, 8-10 (Aerial Photograph). SDV18930.

Exeter Archaeology, 2001, Archaeological Assessment of a Proposed Residential Development at New Road, Bideford (Report - Assessment). SDV13528.

Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2002, Bideford Bridge (Schedule Document). SDV18899.

Formerly scheduled under DV122. Descheduled July 2002 under SM91315.

Torridge District Council, 2003, Bideford Townscape Heritage Initiative Stage 2 Bid, 4 (Un-published). SDV345899.

Devon County Council, 2005, Listed Building Application for Works to the Carriageway of Bideford Long Bridge (Planning Application). SDV351123.

The bridge has been modified a number of times since it was first built circa 1500. The last modification was in 1925 when the bridge was widened. This was achieved by anchoring reinforced concrete corbels into the piers to support a cantilevered walkway. Statutory services are hung under the cantilever.
Tests in 2002 showed the cantilevers to be in poor condition. It was, therefore, proposed to relocate the services within the main part of the bridge and demolish and replace the cantilevers.

Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2006, Bideford (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV341003.

Rushton, N., 2006, River Torridge Pipeline, Bideford, Devon: Rapid Archaeological Appraisal, 6, 12; WA 01 (Report - Interim). SDV342463.

Unknown, 2008, Bideford Longbridge - Concrete Repair & Cathodic Protection. Heritage Statement & Proposal Details for Street Lighting (Report - non-specific). SDV340994.

The first pictures of lighting on the bridge were taken circa 1840, and show gas lanterns on tall columns installed in some of the refuges. This lighting was replaced when the bridge was widened in 1864. Mock refuges were constructed to carry large cast iron ornamental columns which carried double lanterns. When the bridge was again widened in the late 1920s the lighting was replaced using similar lanterns, but supported on a birdcage steel framework. The existing (2008) lighting is a modification of that installed in the 1920s. This lighting keeps the birdcage structure, but extends the height of the lantern by installing a pole through the middle of the cage.

Torridge District Council, 2009, Bideford Conservation Area Appraisal, 1 (Report - non-specific). SDV351295.

Ordnance Survey, 2012, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV348725.

Unknown, Unknown, Bideford Long Bridge (Ground Photograph). SDV356689.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV13528Report - Assessment: Exeter Archaeology. 2001. Archaeological Assessment of a Proposed Residential Development at New Road, Bideford. Exeter Archaeology Report. 01.33. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV13556Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1995. DAP/YL. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 8-11.
SDV15240Report - Survey: Pye, A. R. + Simpson, S. J.. 1991. Bideford Waterfront NRA Tidal Defence Scheme: Historical Survey and Part 1 Archaeological Survey. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. 91.01. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV15283List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1973. Bideford Borough. Historic Houses Register. Website.
SDV15290Article in Serial: Boyle, V. C.. 1932. The Bideford Polackers. The Mariner's Mirror. 18. Unknown. 113.
SDV15407Article in Serial: Chope, R. P.. 1926 - 1927. Barrel Organ in Hartland Church. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 14. Unknown. 93, 94, 96.
SDV18670Article in Serial: Amery, P. F. S.. 1900-1901. A Tour across Dartmoor into North Devon by the Rev. John Swete 1789. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 1. Unknown. 169.
SDV18889Unknown: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. Unknown.
SDV18895Article in Serial: Chope, R. P.. 1922 - 1923. Old Bideford Bridge. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 12. Unknown. 240.
SDV18898Correspondence: Department of National Heritage. 1992. Proposed Works at Bideford Bridge. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. A4 Stapled.
SDV18899Schedule Document: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 2002. Bideford Bridge. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV18900Article in Serial: Worthy, C.. 1884. Notes - Genealogical and Historical - Being a Second Essay towards a History of Bideford. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 16. Unknown. 676.
SDV18901Article in Serial: Whiting, F. E.. 1948. Bideford Bridge. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 80. A5 Hardback. 127-136; Pl 9-15.
SDV18902Article in Serial: Grenville, R.. 1902. A History of the Church at Bideford and Some of its Rectors. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 34. A5 Hardback. 209.
SDV18904Article in Serial: Duncan, A.G.. 1902. The Long Bridge of Bideford. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 34. A5 Hardback. 223.
SDV18907Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1977. SS42NE15. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index. Photo.
SDV18908Ground Photograph: Unknown. 403/14. Devon County Council Conservation Section Collection. Unknown.
SDV18909Monograph: Johnson, F. M.. 1933. British Bridges. An Illustrated Technical and Historical Record. British Bridges. An Illustrated Technical and Historical Record. Hardback Volume. 60-61.
SDV18913Article in Serial: Doe, G. M.. 1926. North Devon in Elizabethan Times. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 58. A5 Hardback. 244.
SDV18915Article in Serial: Chope, R. P.. 1924 - 1925. Old Bideford Bridge. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 13. Unknown. 61-65: Plate.
SDV18918Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1985. FP 6a. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 6a.
SDV18919List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1988. Bideford. Historic Houses Register. Unknown. 1.
SDV18922Ground Photograph: Devon County Council. Bideford Bridge. Photograph (Paper). 5/28.
SDV18923Correspondence: Department of Environment. 1987. Proposed Works at Bideford Long Bridge. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. A4 Stapled.
SDV18924Correspondence: Department of Environment. 1988. Proposed Works at Bideford Long Bridge. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. A4 Single Sheet.
SDV18926Report - Assessment: Exeter Archaeology. 1996. Archaeological Assessment of the DCC Bideford East-the-Water Industrial Link Road. Exeter Archaeology Report. 96.71. A4 Stapled + Digital. 2.
SDV18927Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F. M.. 1987. IU 3. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 3.
SDV18930Aerial Photograph: Horner, B.. 1999. ACF 8-10. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 8-10.
SDV18954Report - Assessment: Weddell, P. J.. 1993. Archaeological Assessment of a Development Site at Mill Street/Queen Street, Bideford. Exeter Museums Archaeological Field Unit Report. 93.37. A4 Stapled + Digital. 3-4.
SDV2296Monograph: Henderson, C. + Jervoise, E.. 1938. Old Devon Bridges. Old Devon Bridges. Unknown. 92.
SDV319968Monograph: Watkins, J.. 1792. History of Bideford. History of Bideford. Unknown. 26, 142.
SDV338459List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of National Heritage. 19/04/1993. Bideford. Historic Houses Register. A4 Comb Bound. 22.
SDV340994Report - non-specific: Unknown. 2008. Bideford Longbridge - Concrete Repair & Cathodic Protection. Heritage Statement & Proposal Details for Street Lighting. Devon County Council Report. A4 Stapled.
SDV340995Unattributed Sites and Monuments Register Entry: Unknown. 1925 - 1977. Bideford Bridge.
SDV340996Ground Photograph: Devon County Council. Bideford Bridge. Photograph (Paper). 29.
SDV340999Ground Photograph: Frith, F.. 1860-1880. Polacker Jane and Mary below Bideford Bridge. Francis Frith Collection. Photocopy.
SDV341003List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 2006. Bideford. Historic Houses Register. Digital.
SDV341009Schedule Document: Office of Works. 1926. Bideford Bridge. The Schedule of Monuments. Foolscap. DV122.
SDV341013Correspondence: Department of Environment. 1990. Proposed Works at Bideford Bridge. Scheduled Monument Consent Letter. A4 Stapled.
SDV341346Report - Survey: Timms, S. C.. 1976. The Devon Urban Survey, 1976. First Draft. Devon Committee for Rescue Archaeology Report. A4 Unbound + Digital. 90, 92, 96.
SDV342463Report - Interim: Rushton, N.. 2006. River Torridge Pipeline, Bideford, Devon: Rapid Archaeological Appraisal. Wessex Archaeology Report. 62220.01. A4 Stapled. 6, 12; WA 01.
SDV345899Un-published: Torridge District Council. 2003. Bideford Townscape Heritage Initiative Stage 2 Bid. Torridge District Council Report. A4 Stapled + Digital. 4.
SDV345901Un-published: Torridge District Council. Bideford Conservation Area Partnership Scheme. Action Plan for 1996-1999. Torridge District Council Report. A4 Stapled + Digital. 3.
SDV345902Un-published: Torridge District Council. Bideford Heritage Economic Regeneration Scheme. Implementation Programme 1999-2002. Torridge District Council Report. A4 Stapled + Digital. 2.
SDV348725Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2012. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital). [Mapped feature: #93556 ]
SDV351123Planning Application: Devon County Council. 2005. Listed Building Application for Works to the Carriageway of Bideford Long Bridge. Devon County Council. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV351295Report - non-specific: Torridge District Council. 2009. Bideford Conservation Area Appraisal. Torridge District Council Planning Guidance. Digital. 1.
SDV352298Report - non-specific: Sir Douglas Fox & Partners. 1913. Bideford Bridge Report. Sir Douglas Fox & Partners. BM3082. A4 Stapled + Digital.
SDV352469Article in Monograph: Devon County Council. 1975. Bideford Town Trail. Devon Town Trails: European Architectural Heritage Year. Paperback Volume. 77.
SDV356Article in Serial: Pill, D. H.. 1966. The Administration of the Diocese of Exeter under Bishop Veysey. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 98. Unknown. 267.
SDV356689Ground Photograph: Unknown. Unknown. Bideford Long Bridge. Devon County Council Conservation Section Collection. Photograph (Paper) + Digital.
SDV363330Article in Serial: Holt, H. P.. 1970. Bideford Long Bridge. A Salvage Operation. Journal of the Institution of Highway Engineers. Photocopy + Digital.
SDV7312Worksheet: Meade, H. M.. 1977. Unknown. Unknown.

Associated Monuments

MDV498Parent of: Maltese Cross, Long Bridge, Bideford (Monument)
MDV499Parent of: Sundial, Long Bridge, Bideford (Monument)
MDV14254Related to: All Saints Chapel, Bideford Bridge (Monument)
MDV18918Related to: Bideford (Monument)
MDV12501Related to: Medieval Settlement, Paiges Lane, Barnstaple (Monument)
MDV14255Related to: St Mary's Chapel, Bideford Bridge (Monument)
MDV55379Related to: Timber, Bideford (Find Spot)
MDV16847Related to: Tollhouse, Bideford Bridge (Monument)
MDV107148Related to: Torridge Bridge, Bideford (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV4517 - Archaeological Appraisal of River Torridge Pipeline Routes, Bideford, Devon

Date Last Edited:Mar 11 2020 2:17PM