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HER Number:MDV8083
Name:Haytor Iron Mine, Ilsington

Summary

Haytor Mine was a long established and relatively large mine by Devon standards, producing a mixture of brown haematite and magnetite, the latter much favoured by steel producers. Mining here is believed to have been taking place by the 16th century, although large scale production is only recorded from the early 19th century. Worked up until around 1920, firstly as surface workings but later an adit was driven down to increase production. Magnetite, brown haematite and spectacular iron ore were produced. In its late 19th century heyday the mine employed between 70-92 people.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 771 770
Map Sheet:SX77NE
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishIlsington
DistrictTeignbridge
Ecclesiastical ParishILSINGTON

Protected Status: none recorded

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX77NE/35

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • IRONSTONE MINE (XV to XX - 1500 AD? to 1921 AD (Between))

Full description

1840, Tithe Map (Cartographic). SDV339770.

Mine is shown on the Tithe Map.


Worth, R. N., 1876, The Ancient Stannary of Ashburton, 319 (Article in Serial). SDV282450.

This mine still being worked for iron in 1875.


Ordnance Survey, 1880-1899, First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map (Cartographic). SDV336179.

'Haytor Iron Mine (disused)' depicted on the late 19th century Ordnance Survey maps. Associated workings illustrated at SX77177703 and SX77127736.


Ordnance Survey, 1904 - 1906, Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map (Cartographic). SDV325644.

'Haytor Iron Mine (disused)' depicted on early 20th century map but with less detail than on the late 19th century version.


Ordnance Survey, 1930, 4th Edition (Cartographic). SDV339601.

No depiction of the location of the mine shown on the 1930s version of the Ordnance Survey map.


Harris, H., 1968, Industrial Archaeology of Dartmoor, 68, 200 (Monograph). SDV149229.

The most productive of the iron mines were in Ilsington parish. The Haytor Iron Mine (SX772770), worked first at the surface and later by adit was in production in the early and middle years of the 19th century, and also at times during the early part of the 20th century up to 1921. An iron ore, magnetite was worked with a variety of other minerals. Local people still remember the ore being brought from the mines to the Bovey road near Blue Burn by an elaborate tramway and carted along the road by traction engines.
At SX772770 and SX772773, south of Haytor Vale can be seen a deep cutting and an adit, which formed part of the Haytor Iron Mine. There is also an adit east of the Vale amid beech trees, at SX773773.


Hamilton Jenkin, Dr. A. K., 1981, Untitled Source, 134-137 (Report - non-specific). SDV245767.

Worked first (pre 1828) as opencast, for magnetite and brown haematite; later an incline shaft sunk at SX77197702. Continued selling ores (?not its own) until 1908.


Burt, R. + Waite, P. + Burnley, R., 1984, Devon and Somerset Mines, 71 (Article in Serial). SDV347761.

A number of different owners in the 1860s - early 20th century and a variety of company names e.g. the Haytor Magnetic Iron Company in 1881. Heyday represented by employment figures between 70 and 92 in the 1880s, which had declined to 16 in 1910. Some outputs given.


Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1985, Aerial Photograph Project (Interpretation). SDV319854.

Not visible on Royal Air Force 1946 aerial photographs.


Griffiths, D. M., 1986, Haytor Iron Mine (Worksheet). SDV282446.

Haytor iron mine together with adit at SX77297715. Now much overgrown by scrub and has partially been used as a rubbish tip. Same outcrop as Smallacombe. Other details: Scanned version of paper copy in parish file at DCC.


Harris, H., 1994, The Haytor Granite Tramway and Stover Canal, 27 (Monograph). SDV341541.


Hamilton Jenkin, Dr. A. K., 2005, Mines of Devon, 128-9 (Monograph). SDV282410.

Haytor Mine, 183 meters south of the Rock Hotel, had been developed opencast and by means of an incline shaft before 1828. Some time later an adit was driven from near the valley bottom about 183 meters east of the hotel, striking the ore beds 20 fathoms below the open pit. The deposits consisted of four layers varying in thickness from 1.8 to 4.3 meters with intervening strata of barren ground in between. Output during the years 1858-61 and 1869-82 is recorded as 26,5000 tons of magnetite, brown haematite and spectacular iron ore. Additional sales of ore totalling 12,106 tons are given under the names Haytor and Haytor Vale, with a further 1,400 tons in 1908. It is thought that some of this ore was obtained by purchase from other workings outside the area.


Walter, N., 2015, Kelly Mine Preservation Society Newsletter (April), 3 (Article in Serial). SDV358921.

Haytor Mine was a long established and relatively large mine by Devon standards, producing a mixture of brown haematite and magnetite, the latter much favoured by steel producers. Mining here is believed to have been taking place by the 16th century, although large scale production is only recorded from the early 19th century. By the 1830s the original pit working was well established, as the landowner ( George Templer ) was reported for having failed to fence the 'iron pit beside the highway'. The mine remained active through to the early 20th century, sending large quantities of ore to steelworks in South Wales.
Two newspaper cuttings recorded by the Kelly Mine Preservation Society add information about the closure of the mine:
From 1921; "We are very glad to be able to state that the closing of the Haytor iron mine is only a
temporary measure, due to the furnaces remaining closed down. When the furnaces restart the mine will re-open full activities. In order to mitigate unemployment as far as possible the management kept on some of their employees until last week.....Practically every iron mine in England has been closed for similar reasons....The Haytor mine has kept open much longer than most of the mines in the country, and they have a very considerable quantity of ore ready at the loading station for despatch.
By this time the ore was probably raised from adit, roughly sorted at the adit mouth, and taken by steam lorry to Bovey railway station ( possibly also involving an incline lift to the road level ). The year before the closure Bovey Town Council had complained about the state of the Haytor road, it being ripped up by the 'steam lorry and trailer' from the mine. Henry Davies, writing in 1902, stated a steam lorry 'carries 3 tons, and hauls a further 2 to 3 tons on a trailing vehicle; the legal limit of 5 miles an hour is maintained with the greatest of ease..'. The steel furnaces seemed to have been closed down as a result of a national railway strike. That marked the end of Haytor Mine, which up to 1910 was operated by the Ilsington Mining Co., and then passed on in 1913 to Haytor Iron Mines Ltd."
From 1923; "HAYTOR IRON MINES - Company dormant since 1920 – The public examination was held
at the London Bankruptcy Court of Mr Joseph Phillips, who failed in October last.....The St Stephens
Syndicate Limited was formed in 1907 to acquire tin mines in Cornwall. Witness acted as managing
director of the syndicate, which carried on and worked tin mines in the county until the outbreak of war, and went into liquidation in 1917. Witness had also acted as managing director of the Parka Lease
Limited, formed in 1916, to acquire a licence for the lease of a tin mine in Cornwall....and of Haytor Iron
Mines Limited, formed in December 1913 to work a mine near Bovey Tracey, and which company had
been dormant since the railway strike in 1920.... the debtor attributed his failure to the slump in the metal markets, the closing of mines in which he was interested, and to other causes."
The last recorded production from Haytor was 1,604 tons in 1919, with 31 workers employed. This data
may also include production from the nearby Smallacombe working. By this time the best ore had
probably long gone, the magnetite beds dipping down steeply and probably diminishing at depth. The full newspaper report covers all the mining companies Joseph Philips was involved in, most of which ended up in liquidation.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV149229Monograph: Harris, H.. 1968. Industrial Archaeology of Dartmoor. Industrial Archaeology of Dartmoor. A5 Hardback. 68, 200.
SDV245767Report - non-specific: Hamilton Jenkin, Dr. A. K.. 1981. Mines of Devon: North and East of Dartmoor. Unknown. 134-137.
SDV282410Monograph: Hamilton Jenkin, Dr. A. K.. 2005. Mines of Devon. Mines of Devon. Paperback Volume. 128-9.
SDV282446Worksheet: Griffiths, D. M.. 1986. Haytor Iron Mine. Worksheet. Digital.
SDV282450Article in Serial: Worth, R. N.. 1876. The Ancient Stannary of Ashburton. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 8. Unknown. 319.
SDV319854Interpretation: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. 1985. Aerial Photograph Project. Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England Aerial Photograph P. Cartographic.
SDV325644Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1904 - 1906. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV336179Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1880-1899. First Edition Ordnance 25 inch map. First Edition Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital). [Mapped feature: #107620 ]
SDV339601Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 1930. 4th Edition. Ordnance Survey 25 inch Map. Map (Digital).
SDV339770Cartographic: 1840. Tithe Map. Tithe Map and Apportionment. Map (Paper).
SDV341541Monograph: Harris, H.. 1994. The Haytor Granite Tramway and Stover Canal. The Haytor Granite Tramway and Stover Canal. A5 Paperback. 27.
SDV347761Article in Serial: Burt, R. + Waite, P. + Burnley, R.. 1984. Devon and Somerset Mines. The Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom. Paperback Volume. 71.
SDV358921Article in Serial: Walter, N.. 2015. Kelly Mine Preservation Society Newsletter (April). Kelly Mine Preservation Society Newsletter. 2/2015. Digital. 3.

Associated Monuments

MDV8084Parent of: Haytor Iron Mine, adit (Monument)
MDV8085Related to: Smallacombe Iron Mine (Monument)
MDV37162Related to: Windpump north-east of Higher Cator Lodge, Ilsington (Monument)
MDV112227Related to: Woman's Institute Hall in Haytor Vale (Building)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded


Date Last Edited:May 16 2016 2:38PM