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HER Number:MDV8540
Name:Kingswear Castle

Summary

Built in 1491 to 1502 as part of the defences at entrance to Dartmouth harbour, and converted in 1855 into a summer residence. Square on plan, with a low circular detached tower to north-west.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 891 502
Map Sheet:SX85SE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishKingswear
DistrictSouth Hams
Ecclesiastical ParishBRIXHAM

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX85SE/20
  • Old Listed Building Ref (I)

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • ARTILLERY FORT (Early Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1750 AD (Between))

Full description

Mottershead, D. N., Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV141687.

A geomorphological weathering experiment was conducted at historic sites exposed to coastal salt erosion for 500-600 years. The lithology of kingswear castle belongs to the dartmouth group which has a high rock density but the high feldspar + chlorite content reduce durability (mottershead).


Haslam, C., Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV160480.

Possibly begun in 1491, but more probably built in one go, 1501-2, at which date it is recorded as complete. The second earliest fortification in the country specifically designed for artillery - its only predecessor being dartmouth castle (sx85se-07) to which kingswear is the companion in a unified system of defence. Gun room on ground floor, with additional gun loops on the first and second floors and a platform on the roof of timber planks caulked with tar. Largely redundant by 1600. One round of repairs in the later xvii century, when the principal gun platform is recorded as being on the roof. Early c19 illustrations show its upper storey in ruins. Converted to summer residence in 1855, with new floors and roof, rebuilt parapet and a new round tower added. Restoration work commenced in 1987. Timber plates running through embrasure cills reinterpreted as devices to prevent recoil. Ground floor battery reinstated by removal of kitchen, scullery and concrete floor. Oak embrasure shutters repaired and new ones made. Three shutters possibly c17. First floor held garderobe and fireplace. Victorian features retained, but floor raised 20cm to its original height. Second floor retained least tudor detail with c17-c18 window openings and room divisions added in 1855. These subdivisions have been removed but victorian window joinery and other carpentry has been retained. Pitched roof replaced by flat roof with a lean-to bathroom in position of a long-removed shelter against the rear parapet (haslam).


O'NEIL, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172229.

Kingswear castle. Built to match the tower of dartmouth castle it was later converted into a dwelling-house. Date of construction c.1500-1. This may well have been first constructed by john corp who was granted a license to crenellate in 1402 (o'neil).


ADAMS, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172519.

Kingswear castle, once a defensive site, now a dwelling house. The wooden roller used for easing the chain over the cliff edge was found buried in the wall of the ground floor of the round fort (adams).


SX85SE/8/9, Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172523.

The chain (contra griffith, loomie, etc) appears in fact to have stretched from dartmouth castle to the terminal beneath gomerock castle (sx85se/8/9) (griffith).


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172526.

Adams, m. /tda/32(1900)506/the castle, manor-house and church of clifton near dartmouth.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172527.

Windeatte, e. /tda/46(1914)422-3/the borough of clifton-dartmouth-hardness and its mayors and mayoralties, part 4.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172528.

Russell, p. + yorke, g. /tda/85(1953)72-3 pl.12/kingswear and its neighbourhood.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172529.

Osa=sx85se17.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172530.

O'neil, st. J. /archaeologia/85(1935)129-158/dartmouth castle and other defences in dartmouth haven.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172531.

Doe/hhr:addendum to totnes rd dated may 1970.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172532.

Russell, p. /dcnq/23(1947-1947)200/dartmouth (pre-reformation). The castle and st. Petrox.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172535.

Loomie, a. J. /the mariner's mirror/49(1963)/288-300/an armada pilot's survey of the english coastline,october 1597.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172533.

Griffith, f. /devon's past: an aerial view/(1988)84.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172537.

Des=mottershead, d. N. /weathering of coastal defensive structures in south west england: a 500 year stone durability trial/(2000)1143-1159/earth surface processes + landforms 25.


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172534.

Haslam, c. /fortress/4(feb 1990)3-5/landmarks in coastal defence.


Russell, P. M. G., Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV6591.

Vis=1969(doe) square tower of stone rubble. Crenellated parapet stepped up to rear with octagonal stair turret, some window opening, converted to casements, much restored. Commanding topographical position. The commencement of the building of the tower of kingswear castle is referred to in the mayor of dartmouth's accounts 1488-1494 (russell).


Griffith, F. M., Untitled Source (Report - Survey). SDV677.

Vis=17/11/2000 (griffith) the castle is now converted into letting accommodation by the landmark trust. Slides in smr.


Loomie, A. J., Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV70576.

1597 survey mentions a chain stretched across the harbour between kingswear and dartmouth castles, and artillery trenches adjoining each (loomie).


Untitled Source (Migrated Record). SDV172536.

Des=slides(17/11/2000)/in smr.


Ordnance Survey, 2011, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV346129.

Map object based on this Source.


Ordnance Survey, 2014, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV355681.

Map object based on this source.


English Heritage, 2014, National Heritage List for England (National Heritage List for England). SDV355683.

Blockhouse for the defence of Dartmouth Harbour, converted into summer residence. Built in 1491 to 1502 as part of the defences at entrance to Dartmouth harbour on the east side and with Dartmouth Castle on the west side of the estuary. Slate rubble with red sandstone dressings. Square on plan with slightly battered walls. Corbelled embattled parapet, stepped up to higherlevel on north side. North side has chamfered two-centred arch doorway and corbelled machicolations above, and an octagonal stair turret to right on north west corner, with battlements, small four-centred arch windows at top and loops below. On the other sides four- centred head openings and loops at high level and square openings below with relieving arches. Low circular detached tower to north west with corbelled embattled parapet, openings with cambered arches, and round stair turret on south east side also with corbelled parapet with battlements. C20 concrete accretions linking it to main building. There was a fort on the Dartmouth side of the har- bour mouth as early as 1388 but the existing Dartmouth Castle was begun in 1481 and most of the surviving work is of 1488-94. By the mid C17 the long range guns installed at Dartmouth Castle made Kingswear Castle obsolete and it was abandoned. But it was held by Sir Henry Cary for the King during the Civil War and captured in 1646 by Sir Thomas Fairfax. Further defences for Kingswear were built by the Royalists in the form of the redoubt immediately above the town. Kingswear Castle was converted into a summer residence (for Major Charles Seale- Hayne) in 1855 by T Lidston, architect, and it is still used for this purpose. Reference: B.H. St J O'Neil, "Dartmouth Castle and other defences of Dartmouth Haven", Society of Antiquaries 1936.

Sources / Further Reading

  • Migrated Record: Mottershead, D. N..
  • Migrated Record: Haslam, C..
  • Migrated Record: SX85SE/8/9.
  • Migrated Record: ADAMS.
  • Migrated Record: O'NEIL.
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record:
  • Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2011. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital).
  • Migrated Record:
  • Migrated Record: Russell, P. M. G..
  • Report - Survey: Griffith, F. M..
  • Migrated Record: Loomie, A. J..
  • Migrated Record:
  • Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2014. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey Digital Mapping. Digital.
  • National Heritage List for England: English Heritage. 2014. National Heritage List for England. Historic Houses Register. Digital.

Associated Monuments

MDV58669Related to: Bank and Ditch south of Gommerock (Monument)
MDV19561Related to: Dartmouth Castle or Hawley's Fortalice (Building)
MDV8519Related to: Dartmouth Castle (Building)
MDV8520Related to: Gomerock Tower, West of Castle Road (Monument)
MDV39413Related to: World War II Pillbox west of Kingswear Court (Monument)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded


Date Last Edited:Apr 9 2015 3:52PM