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HER Number:MDV8541
Name:Greenway Camp Hillfort

Summary

Prehistoric multiple enclosure hillfort to the north-east of Cart Wood.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 889 537
Map Sheet:SX85SE
Admin AreaDevon
Civil ParishKingswear
DistrictSouth Hams
Ecclesiastical ParishBRIXHAM

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: 446012
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX85SE/21
  • Old SAM County Ref: 281
  • Old SAM Ref: 33792
  • Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division: SX85SE8

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • HILLFORT (Early Iron Age to I - 700 BC to 100 AD (Between))

Full description

Woollcombe, H., 1839-1850, Woollcombe Manuscript (Un-published). SDV16214.

Other details: Plan.


Wall, J. C., 1906, Ancient Earthworks, 591,605 (Article in Monograph). SDV341465.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1950 - 1953, SX85SE8 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV346660.

Late Medieval artefacts recovered in 1949, now in Torquay Museum. Other details: Plan.


Ministry of Works, 1951, Greenway Camp (Schedule Document). SDV346659.

Greenway Camp. A hill fort sited on the steep slope at the end of a spur between two little valleys running down to Noss Creek on the tidal estuary of the River Dart. The defences on the lower side (91.44 metre contour) consist of a single bank and deep broad ditch, measuring 13.72 metres overall. On the higher side (121.92 metres contour), there are two lines of defences, well preserved in scrub. A third line crosses the spur about 91.4 metres to the north and is incorporated into a hedge bank. The entrances are probably in the centre of the east and west sides of the main enclosure, but are obscured by later field bank and lynchets. The enclosed area is about 1.2 hectares. Other details: Monument 281.


Fox, A., 1952, Untitled Source, 1-22 (Article in Serial). SDV16203.

Other details: Figure.


Russell, P. + Yorke, G., 1953, Kingswear and its Neighbourhood, 76 (Article in Serial). SDV176862.


Cambridge University, 1971, CUC/BFK, 62 (Aerial Photograph). SDV346663.


Timms, S. C., 1978, Untitled Source (Worksheet). SDV346661.

Condition stable with no signs of recent disturbance.


Robinson, R., 1984, List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1984 (Un-published). SDV343082.

Site visited on 29th February 1984.


Lewis, R. E. + Maddock, B. G. + Haley, J., 1987, Noss Hillfort and Iron Age Brixham, 48-54 (Article in Serial). SDV346664.


Griffith, F.M, 1988, DAP/JN, DAP JN/9 11-JAN-1988 (Aerial Photograph). SDV352654.

Two additional ditches and a single bank are visible as cropmarks.


Fox, A., 1996, Prehistoric Hillforts in Devon, 45 (Monograph). SDV7958.


Environment Agency, 1998-2012, Lidar data JPEG SX85SE DTM, LIDAR SX85SE DTM Environment Agency 1998-2012 (Cartographic). SDV352489.

Two additional ditches and banks are visible as earthworks. Map object based on this source.


Dyer, M. J., 2002, Greenway, Galmpton: Archaeological and Historic Landscape Survey: Part 1, 4 (Report - Survey). SDV169254.


Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2002, Hillfort known as Greenway Camp, immediately north-east of Cart Wood (Schedule Document). SDV346662.

Hillfort known as Greenway Camp, immediately north-east of Cart Wood. This monument includes a large multiple enclosure hillfort, on a steep south facing promontory overlooking the estuary of the River Dart. The monument survives with an irregular oval inner enclosure aligned north-east to south-west, its sloping interior measuring up to 90 metres wide and 165 metres long, tapering down to a narrow south-west corner. Evidence for two periods of construction is supported by traces of a curving rampart across the interior, belonging to an earlier roughly circular enclosure at the north end of the site. This rampart, forming the earlier enclosure's south side, survives in a reduced state and measures 10 metres wide, falling 2 metres to the south onto a narrow terrace on the site of the outer ditch, while a counterscarp bank 2 metres wide falls a further 0.5 metres. A kink in the eastern rampart indicates the point where the later enclosure was added to the earlier one. The ramparts of the later enclosure survive well, their earth banks measuring from 2 metres to 5 metres wide, rising between 0.4 metres to 2.5 metres from the interior and falling from 2 metres to 3.5 metres into an outer ditch. This ditch survives best on the east side and measures up to 13 metres wide and up to 1.5 metres deep, with traces of an upcast bank on its outer side. A second rampart, lying 30 metres outside the first on its north east side, forms an outwork protecting the approach to the main entrance, which lies at its south end. Its bank measures 6 metres wide and rises up to 2 metres from the interior, falling from 2.5 metres to 3 metres into an outer ditch 8 metres to 10 metres wide and 0.4 metres deep. The outwork curves back to join the inner defences just south of the main, entrance, which crosses the inner ditch on a causeway and passes through a gap in the inner ramparts. A second entrance at the south-west corner of the fort passes through a narrow gap in the defences and is protected by a crescent shaped outwork. This outwork survives as a scarp in the steep slope immediately west of the fort and measures 45 metres long, with a rampart 14 metres wide falling 2 metres to a slight terrace on the site of its outer ditch. A boundary work attached to the ramparts just west of this entrance runs for at least 85 metres into the valley to the south. It has a 13 metres wide and 0.5 metres high and a ditch 6 metres wide and 0.3 metres deep on its east side. North of the fort a long outwork, roughly east-west aligned, cuts off the approach down the broad spur to the fort. Its bank measures from 3 metres to 6 metres wide, rising up to 2 metres from the interior and falling 1.5 metres to an outer ditch 13 metres wide and 0.4 metres deep. It begins immediately above the stream which runs down the north-western side of the spur, and terminates at the crest of the valley on the east side of the fort. Just north of the terminal, an additional ditchless rampart returns along the contour to the west, to a point where a track which climbs the valley side from the south west passes through an oblique entrance. This additional rampart measures 10 metres wide, rising 0.2 metres above ground to the north and falling 0.8 metres to the south. The entrance measures 15 metres wide, the rampart terminals overlapping for a distance of 30 metres. The rampart continues along the contour to the west-south-west as a slight scarp, returning to the inner enclosure of the fort. The fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included. Multiple enclosure forts comprise an inner and one or more outer enclosed areas and date mainly to the Late Iron Age. Despite slight damage by ploughing and stock erosion, the multiple enclosure fort known as Greenway Camp will retain features relating to the development and use of the site. Stratified archaeological deposits are likely to survive in the ditches, ramparts and interior of this previously unexcavated hillfort and will add considerably to the future understanding of this monument, and hillforts in general. Other details: Monument 33792.


Dyer, M. J., 2003, Greenway, Galmpton, Devon: Archaeological Recording during the Installation of New Visitor Facilities, 2 (Report - Watching Brief). SDV336097.


National Monuments Record, 2011, 446012 (National Monuments Record Database). SDV346665.

Earthwork remains of an Iron Age univallate promontory hillfort situated immediately north-east of Cart Wood on a steep south facing promontory overlooking the estuary of the River Dart. The monument survives with an irregular oval inner enclosure aligned north-east to south-west. Evidence for two periods of construction is supported by traces of a curving rampart across the interior, belonging to an earlier roughly circular enclosure at the north end of the site. The ramparts of the later enclosure survive well. Late Medieval artefacts were recovered.


Ordnance Survey, 2011, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV346129.

'Fort' and 'Rampart' shown on modern mapping. Map object based on this Source.


Hegarty, C. + Knight, S. + Sims, R., 2013-2014, South Devon Coast Rapid Coastal Zone Assessment Survey National Mapping Programme Project (Interpretation). SDV351146.

Ditches and banks of prehistoric date are visible as earthworks on aerial photographs of 1988 and on digital images derived from LiDAR data captured between 1998-2012, at Greenway Camp hillfort. Given the density of vegetation across the site, the earthworks of the hillfort are best viewed on DTM LiDAR data. A number of previously unrecorded earthworks have been recorded. These are located across the interior of the hillfort and likely represent an earlier phase of construction. This earlier phase appears to be characterised by a smaller, more circular shaped hillfort in which the earthworks form part of the outer, southern edge. The earthworks are curvilinear in shape, broadly east to west aligned and comprise two earthwork banks and two earthwork ditches which flank the northern most bank. The southern of the two banks has been previously recorded and transcribed. Other earthwork banks and ditches of the hillfort, for example, the northern-most outwork, also appear to be more extensive in nature than has been previously mapped and may warrant confirmation from a site visit.


National Monuments Record, 23/04/1980, SF1748, 97,99 (Aerial Photograph). SDV279663.

Aerial photographs show that by 1980 the outer line of defence in the field immediately to the north has been virtually destroyed. Other details: Copies in HER.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV16203Article in Serial: Fox, A.. 1952. Archaeological Journal. 109. Unknown. 1-22.
SDV16214Un-published: Woollcombe, H.. 1839-1850. Woollcombe Manuscript. Manuscript.
SDV169254Report - Survey: Dyer, M. J.. 2002. Greenway, Galmpton: Archaeological and Historic Landscape Survey: Part 1. Exeter Archaeology Report. 02.48. A4 Bound. 4.
SDV176862Article in Serial: Russell, P. + Yorke, G.. 1953. Kingswear and its Neighbourhood. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 85. A5 Hardback. 76.
SDV279663Aerial Photograph: National Monuments Record. 23/04/1980. SF1748. National Monuments Record Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). 97,99.
SDV336097Report - Watching Brief: Dyer, M. J.. 2003. Greenway, Galmpton, Devon: Archaeological Recording during the Installation of New Visitor Facilities. Exeter Archaeology Report. 03.10. A4 Stapled + Digital. 2.
SDV341465Article in Monograph: Wall, J. C.. 1906. Ancient Earthworks. Victoria History of the County of Devon. Hardback Volume. 591,605.
SDV343082Un-published: Robinson, R.. 1984. List of Field Monument Warden Visits 1984. Lists of Field Monument Warden Visits. Printout.
SDV346129Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2011. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey. Map (Digital).
SDV346659Schedule Document: Ministry of Works. 1951. Greenway Camp. The Schedule of Monuments. Foolscap.
SDV346660Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1950 - 1953. SX85SE8. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV346661Worksheet: Timms, S. C.. 1978. Worksheet.
SDV346662Schedule Document: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 2002. Hillfort known as Greenway Camp, immediately north-east of Cart Wood. The Schedule of Monuments. A4 Stapled.
SDV346663Aerial Photograph: Cambridge University. 1971. CUC/BFK. Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs. Photograph (Paper). 62.
SDV346664Article in Serial: Lewis, R. E. + Maddock, B. G. + Haley, J.. 1987. Noss Hillfort and Iron Age Brixham. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 36.2. Unknown. 48-54.
SDV346665National Monuments Record Database: National Monuments Record. 2011. 446012. National Monuments Record Database. Website.
SDV351146Interpretation: Hegarty, C. + Knight, S. + Sims, R.. 2013-2014. South Devon Coast Rapid Coastal Zone Assessment Survey National Mapping Programme Project. AC Archaeology Report. Digital.
Linked documents:1
SDV352489Cartographic: Environment Agency. 1998-2012. Lidar data JPEG SX85SE DTM. Environment Agency LiDAR data. Digital. LIDAR SX85SE DTM Environment Agency 1998-2012.
SDV352654Aerial Photograph: Griffith, F.M. 1988. DAP/JN. Devon Aerial Photograph. Photograph (Paper). DAP JN/9 11-JAN-1988.
SDV7958Monograph: Fox, A.. 1996. Prehistoric Hillforts in Devon. Prehistoric Hillforts in Devon. Paperback Volume. 45.

Associated Monuments: none recorded

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events

  • EDV6127 - Rapid Coastal Zone Assessment Survey National Mapping Programme (NMP) for South-West England - South Coast Devon (Ref: ACD618)

Date Last Edited:Apr 22 2014 11:24AM