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HER Number:MDV8725
Name:Horspit Cross (also known as Stumpy Cross), Bovey Crossroads

Summary

Head, arms and upper portion of the shaft of an impressively large medieval wayside cross of moderately coarse granite, situated on the verge of a crossroads known as Bovey Cross. Has been re-used as a direction post and has been incised with the letters 'O', 'N', 'M' and 'B', although the latter can no longer be seen. Also features an Ordnance Survey benchmark.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 743 847
Map Sheet:SX78SW
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishNorth Bovey
DistrictTeignbridge
Ecclesiastical ParishNORTH BOVEY

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX78SW/10
  • Old Listed Building Ref (II)
  • Old SAM County Ref: 356
  • Old SAM Ref: 24826

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • WAYSIDE CROSS (Early Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1750 AD (Between))
  • SIGNPOST (XVIII to XIX - 1800 AD to 1899 AD (Between))

Full description

Crossing, W., 1892, Old Stone Crosses of the Dartmoor Border, 125 (Monograph). SDV279564.


Prowse, D. C. + Worth, R. H., 1934, On Some Guide Stones Standing on the Course of the Old Track from Tavistock to Ashburton, 322 (Article in Serial). SDV258802.


Masson Phillips, E. N., 1937, The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon: Part I, 328-329 (Article in Serial). SDV240502.


Masson Phillips, E. N., 1943, Notes on Some Old Roadside Stones in South West Devon, 165 (Article in Serial). SDV148816.


Ancient Monuments, 1950, Bovey Cross (Schedule Document). SDV302915.

Bovey Cross. A Medieval cross of usual Dartmoor shape: squat, with short arms. Stands by roadside. Short arms and thick shaft, undecorated.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1952-1953, SX78SW32 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV302923.

On the Moretonhampstead to North Bovey road, at a crossing point about 0.8 kilometres north of North Bovey, an old cross has been inscribed as a guide-post (citing Prowse + Worth, 1934).
Type A; 1.2 metres high. A portion of the shaft with the head and two short arms of a cross of rough rectangular section. It has been adapted as a primitive direction indicator. The letter O (Okehampton) is incised on one face, and N (Newton) on the other, M (Moretonhampstead) at the end of one arm, and B (Bovey) at the end of the other. These are probably an 18th century addition to the cross (citing Masson Phillips, 1943).
Horspit Cross or Stumpy Cross is marked on the Ordnance Survey maps as 'Bovey Cross'. Wayside cross probably in-situ, the incised letters still visible and are on the correct sides for directional purposes. An Ordnance Survey benchmark has also been incised upon it. It is a rough cross, much weathered and lichen covered, and leaning at a slight angle. The name 'Stumpy Cross' is recognised locally (1/5/1953).


Department of Environment, 1987, North Bovey, 146 (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV348844.

Wayside cross turned into guide stone. Probably late Medieval converted in the 19th century. Small roughly hewn granite cross with short arms and truncated head. Has the letters O (Okehampton), N (Newton Abbot), M (Moretonhampstead) and B (Bovey) carved on the two faces and the two ends of its arms. The name apparently derives from the field at whose gate the cross stands.


Ancient Monuments, 1994, Hospit Cross: a wayside cross at Bovey Cross, 900m NNE of North Bovey village (Schedule Document). SDV302918.

Head, arms and upper portion of the shaft of impressively large Medieval wayside cross of moderately coarse granite. On verge of Bovey Cross crossroads. Situated 1 metre from road edge to south-west, 2.5 metres from road edge to south-east and 2 metres from stone wall to north-east. Visible height 1.04 metres. Shaft neatly rectangular in section, 0.42 metres by 0.25 metres.
The arms, which are aligned nearly north-east by south-west, are very stumpy, but probably original. The maximum width across arms 0.59 metres. The south-western arm extends only 0.1 metres from the shaft, and has a depth of 0.34 metres. The north-eastern arm extends only 0.09 metres, 0.32 metres deep. Head extends 0.185 metres above arms. Where it joins the arms it is 0.38 metres wide. Top of head is uneven, probably due to differential weathering and the corrosive effect of a metal pin (now missing) of an Ordnance Survey benchmark, which is in the form of a broad arrow cut at the top of the south-east face.
On the north-west face, between the arms, is an incised 'O', 0.12 metres in diameter. The cut is 20 millimetres wide, 5 millimetres deep. On the south-east face is an incised 'N', 0.16 metres high, 0.125 metres wide. Its cut is 20 millimetres wide, 5 millimetres deep. At the end of the north-east arm is an incised 'M', 0.13 metres high, 0.14 metres wide. The cut is 15 millimetres wide, 5 millimetres deep. There is no legible lettering on the south-western area, though the letter 'B' has been reported in the past.


Ordnance Survey, 2016, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV359352.

'Bovey Cross' is depicted on the modern mapping.


Historic England, 2016, National Heritage List for England, Accessed 18/07/2016 (National Heritage List for England). SDV359353.

The monument, which is known variously as Stumpy Cross and Horspit Cross, includes the head, arms and upper portion of the shaft of an impressively large medieval wayside cross of moderately coarse granite. The cross, which is a Listed Building Grade II, is situated on the verge of a crossroads known as Bovey Cross, on the northern side of the road leading towards Bughead Cross. It is 1m from the road edge to the south west, 2.5m from the road edge to the south east, and 2m from a stone wall to the north east. The visible height of the surviving cross is 1.04m.
The shaft is neatly rectangular in section, measuring 0.42m by 0.25m. The arms, which are aligned nearly north east-south west, are very stumpy, but probably original. The maximum width across the arms is 0.59m. The south western arm extends only 0.1m from the shaft, and has a depth of 0.34m. The north eastern arm extends only 0.09m, and has a depth of 0.32m. The head extends above the arms a maximum of 0.185m. Where the head joins the arms it is 0.38m wide. The top of the head is uneven, probably due to differential weathering of feldspar crystals and to the corrosive effect of a metal pin (now missing) of an Ordnance Survey bench mark, which is in the form of a broad arrow cut at the very top of the south east face of the cross.
On the north west face, between the arms, is an incised letter O (for Okehampton), 0.12m in diameter. The cut is 20mm wide and 5mm deep. On the south east face is an incised letter N (for Newton), 0.16m high by 0.125m wide. Its cut is also 20mm wide and 5mm deep. At the end of the north eastern arm of the cross is an incised letter M (for Moreton), 0.13m high and 0.14m wide. The cut is 15mm wide and 5mm deep. There is no legible lettering on the south western arm, though the letter B (for Bovey) has been reported in the past.
Hospit Cross consists of the upper portion of a massive medieval wayside cross, and still forms a striking feature at a crossroads. The cross is also of interest for having been used as a route marker, with direction letters carved on it.

Sources / Further Reading

SDV148816Article in Serial: Masson Phillips, E. N.. 1943. Notes on Some Old Roadside Stones in South West Devon. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 75. A5 Hardback. 165.
SDV240502Article in Serial: Masson Phillips, E. N.. 1937. The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon: Part I. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 69. A5 Hardback. 328-329.
SDV258802Article in Serial: Prowse, D. C. + Worth, R. H.. 1934. On Some Guide Stones Standing on the Course of the Old Track from Tavistock to Ashburton. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 66. 322.
SDV279564Monograph: Crossing, W.. 1892. Old Stone Crosses of the Dartmoor Border. Old stone crosses of the Dartmoor border. Unknown. 125.
SDV302915Schedule Document: Ancient Monuments. 1950. Bovey Cross. The Schedule of Monuments. Unknown.
SDV302918Schedule Document: Ancient Monuments. 1994. Hospit Cross: a wayside cross at Bovey Cross, 900m NNE of North Bovey village. The Schedule of Monuments. Unknown.
SDV302923Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1952-1953. SX78SW32. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV348844List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1987. North Bovey. Historic Houses Register. A4 Single Sheet. 146.
SDV359352Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2016. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey Digital Mapping. Digital. [Mapped feature: #53223 ]
SDV359353National Heritage List for England: Historic England. 2016. National Heritage List for England. Historic Houses Register. Digital. Accessed 18/07/2016.

Associated Monuments: none recorded

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded


Date Last Edited:Jul 18 2016 3:21PM