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HER Number:MDV8729
Name:Cross on the green, North Bovey

Summary

Well-preserved head, arms and substantial portion of the shaft of a Medieval wayside cross standing on the green in North Bovey in a socket stone that originally housed a different cross. This shaft was apparently used as a footbridge in the 19th century but was erected on the green in the early 19th century. Unclear where it originally stood. Remains of the original cross that stood in the socket apparently exist in wall of nearby shop. North Bovey village cross, although incomplete, has a conspicuous position on the village green, and is an important example of a large medieval wayside cross of a type apparently once quite widespread on eastern Dartmoor.

Location

Grid Reference:SX 739 838
Map Sheet:SX78SW
Admin AreaDartmoor National Park
Civil ParishNorth Bovey
DistrictTeignbridge
Ecclesiastical ParishNORTH BOVEY

Protected Status

Other References/Statuses

  • National Monuments Record: SX 78 SW 22
  • Old DCC SMR Ref: SX78SW/14
  • Old Listed Building Ref (II): 85172
  • Old SAM County Ref: 357
  • Old SAM Ref: 24830
  • Pastscape: 445648

Monument Type(s) and Dates

  • WAYSIDE CROSS (Constructed, Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD (Between))

Full description

Ormerod, G. W., 1873-1874, Wayside Crosses in the District bordering the east of Dartmoor (Article in Serial). SDV346648.

Cross was brought here shortly after 1829 from Bovey Brook where it probably marked a ford.


Crossing, W., 1892, Old Stone Crosses of the Dartmoor Border, 127 (Monograph). SDV279564.


Thornton, W. H., 1900-1901, Some Notes on the More Recent History of a Few Ancient Crosses Which Are to be Found in the Neighbourhood of North Bovey, 65, plate (Article in Serial). SDV259023.


Masson Phillips, E. N., 1937, The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon: Part I, 328 (Article in Serial). SDV240502.

Type C. A socket-stone, square at the base with corner shoulders, and octagonal above, on which is mounted a cross (Type A) of rough rectangular section, the base of the shaft only half filling the large socket-hole. The cross does not belong to the socket-stone. The latter of the type which bears a cross of rectangular section with chamfered edges, whilst the present cross is of the rude wayside type, and was brought to the village from beside a neighbouring stream where it probably marked a ford.
In 1934 the head and two arms of a cross (Type C) of rectangular section with chamfered edges were found (as three pieces which fitted together) in the shop of Mr Netley opposite the green. Mr R. H. Worth considers these fragments to be portions of the cross belonging to the socket-stone on the green. The pieces form the head of the cross, the arms expand slightly outwards and on the face between them is a small recess.


Ancient Monuments, 1950, Cross on the Green, North Bovey (Schedule Document). SDV302937.

Village Cross. This cross has been reset on original base. Usual short thick arms. A good example of its type. At an unknown period, probably during the great rebellion in the 17th century, the cross was thrown into the Bovey Brook, and in 1829, at the instigation of Mr Jones, then curate-in-charge, some farmers took down a team of horses and drew it into the village where they set it up.


Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division, 1953-1955, SX78SW22 (Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card). SDV302938.

Stone Cross (restored) situated on the green. A socket-stone, baring a cross which has a shaft too small for the socket-hole. "It is obvious that this cross does not belong to the socket-stone" (citing Masson Phillips, 1937).
The cross was at one time used as a footbridge across the Bovey Brook but was replaced by the Reverend J. P. Jones in 1829. The cross is 5 feet 2 inches high, the shaft being 14 inches wide at the bottom and 9.5 inches thick; the arms are 25 inches wide, one projecting 4 inches, the other 5.5 inches and the head rises 5.5 inches above them. Four iron clamps secure the shaft in the over large socket. An old inhabitant who remembers the re-erection stated that the belief that the cross and base were not matched did not exist at the time. Apart from the socket's size, the workmanship in each is of the same character. The base stone is 14 inches high, nearly 3 feet square at the bottom, becoming octagonal at the top and one of its corners is broken off (citing Crossing, 1892).
This wayside stone has been altered since Crossing and Masson Phillips recorded it. A roughly cut granite block of oblong shape has been inserted between the shaft and the pedestal and cemented. Part of the circular socket of the pedestal is still visible; this too has been filled up with cement with a heavy lime content. The iron clamps have been ?removed. The grain of the granite of which the cross and pedestal are constructed are of different shade and texture, and as the socket is rounded whereas the shaft has a nearly square section it is obvious that the two do not match each other. The dimensions and description of Masson Phillips and Crossing above are otherwise correct. Its previous siting across the Bovey Brook was not ascertainable (06/05/1953).
In 1951, the cross was knocked over and broken by a vehicle. It was re-erected after advice given by the Dartmoor Preservation Association. The head and arms of cross which did belong to the socket stone are built into a wall in the living room of the village shop (citing Masson Phillips, 1954).


Masson Phillips, E. N., 1954, Supplementary Notes on the Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon (Fourth Paper), 181-182 (Article in Serial). SDV15725.


Department of Environment, 1987, North Bovey, 170 (List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest). SDV348844.

Medieval cross. Roughly cut granite. Latin cross which does not fit the socket stone which is square below and octagonal above. The present cross was found early in the 19th century in use as a footbridge across a stream just below the village.


Ancient Monuments, 1993, Cross on the Green, North Bovey (Schedule Document). SDV302934.

The monument includes the well-preserved head, arms and substantial portion of the shaft of a Medieval wayside cross formed from a single piece of relatively fine-grained granite. It is cemented onto a small rectangular block of granite which has been placed over an ancient octagonal socket stone.
The arms of the cross are aligned more or less north-south. The height of the ancient portion of the cross (shaft, head and arms) is 1.27 metres. The shaft is approximately rectangular in section having maximum dimensions of 0.4 by 0.25 metres. Some stone has been broken off the bottom of the north face of the shaft, and also the bottom of the south face where a crack is poorly filled with cement. Otherwise the cross is in good condition.
The width across the arms is 0.65 metres. Both arms extend 0.12 metres from the shaft and have a depth of 0.24 metres. The head extends 0.14 metres above the arms, and it is 0.34 metres wide where it joins the arms.
The shaft is cemented onto a modern block of very coarse granite measuring 0.5 by 0.31 by 0.25 metres deep. This in turn is cemented across the socket of an ancient socket stone of relatively fine-grained granite. The socket stone is square, measuring 0.9 by 0.9 by 0.22 metres depth, but its top corners have been cut away for about 100 millimetres to create an octagonal top surface to the stone (the south-east corner is broken off). The socket stone has a bevelled edge on its south side, and a possible bevel on the north. On the west and north sides of the upper surface of the socket stone there are holes partially filled with iron, and another possible hole on the south side.
The socket hole itself measures 0.4 metres by 0.38 metres, and apparently has rounded corners. It has been filled with cement where it extends beyond the base of the modern rectangular block set across it. Some restoration was carried out in 1829.


Ordnance Survey, 2016, MasterMap (Cartographic). SDV359352.

'Cross' is depicted on the modern mapping.


Historic England, 2016, National Heritage List for England, Accessed 19/07/2016 (National Heritage List for England). SDV359353.

The monument includes the well preserved head, arms and substantial portion of the shaft of a medieval wayside cross formed from a single piece of relatively fine-grained granite. It is cemented onto a small rectangular block of granite which has been placed over an ancient octagonal socket stone.
The whole monument, which is a Listed Grade II, is situated at the south west end of North Bovey village green. The arms of the cross are aligned more or less north-south. The height of the ancient portion of the cross (shaft, head and arms) is 1.27m. The shaft is approximately rectangular in section having maximum dimensions of 0.4m by 0.25m.
Some stone has been broken off the bottom of the north face of the shaft, and also the bottom of the south face where a crack is poorly filled with cement. Otherwise the cross is in good condition. The width across the arms is 0.65m. Both arms extend 0.12m from the shaft and have a depth of 0.24m. The head extends 0.14m above the arms, and it is 0.34m wide where it joins the arms.
The shaft is cemented onto a modern block of very coarse granite measuring 0.5m by 0.31m by 0.25m deep. This in turn is cemented across the socket of an ancient socket stone of relatively fine-grained granite. The socket stone is square, measuring 0.9m by 0.9m by 0.22m depth, but its top corners have been cut away for about 100mm to create an octagonal top surface to the stone (the south east corner is broken off). The socket stone has a bevelled edge on its south side, and a possible bevel on the north. On the west and north sides of the upper surface of the socket stone there are holes partially filled with iron, and another possible hole on the south side. The socket hole itself measures 0.4m by 0.38m, and apparently has rounded corners. It has been filled with cement where it extends beyond the base of the modern rectangular block set across it.
Some restoration was carried out in 1829.
North Bovey village cross, although incomplete, has a conspicuous position on the village green, and is an important example of a large medieval wayside cross of a type apparently once quite widespread on eastern Dartmoor.


National Monument Record, 2016, Pastscape, Accessed 19/07/2016 (Website). SDV359354.

A cross shaft and head (A) standing in a socket stone of a different type (B) at SX 73998387.
A. A wayside cross shaft, of rectangular section, and a Latin cross head. It was brought here shortly after 1829 from Bovey Brook (citing Ormerod, 1873) where it probably marked a ford. In 1951 it was knocked down by a vehicle and when it was repaired a new block of granite was introduced between the shaft and the socket stone to improve the previously poor fit.
B. A square socket stone with corner shoulders. In 1934 a cross head with slightly expanded arms, was found in three separate fragments built into the wall over the hearth in the village shop, and is considered to be the original cross head belonging to the socket stone (citing Masson Phillips, 1937 and 1954 and Ormerod, 1873).

Sources / Further Reading

SDV15725Article in Serial: Masson Phillips, E. N.. 1954. Supplementary Notes on the Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon (Fourth Paper). Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 86. A5 Hardback. 181-182.
SDV240502Article in Serial: Masson Phillips, E. N.. 1937. The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon: Part I. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 69. A5 Hardback. 328.
SDV259023Article in Serial: Thornton, W. H.. 1900-1901. Some Notes on the More Recent History of a Few Ancient Crosses Which Are to be Found in the Neighbourhood of North Bovey. Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries. 1. Digital. 65, plate.
SDV279564Monograph: Crossing, W.. 1892. Old Stone Crosses of the Dartmoor Border. Old stone crosses of the Dartmoor border. Unknown. 127.
SDV302934Schedule Document: Ancient Monuments. 1993. Cross on the Green, North Bovey. The Schedule of Monuments. Unknown.
SDV302937Schedule Document: Ancient Monuments. 1950. Cross on the Green, North Bovey. The Schedule of Monuments. Unknown.
SDV302938Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card: Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division. 1953-1955. SX78SW22. Ordnance Survey Archaeology Division Card. Card Index.
SDV346648Article in Serial: Ormerod, G. W.. 1873-1874. Wayside Crosses in the District bordering the east of Dartmoor. Transactions of the Devonshire Association. 6. A5 Hardback.
SDV348844List of Blds of Arch or Historic Interest: Department of Environment. 1987. North Bovey. Historic Houses Register. A4 Single Sheet. 170.
SDV359352Cartographic: Ordnance Survey. 2016. MasterMap. Ordnance Survey Digital Mapping. Digital. [Mapped feature: #108809 ]
SDV359353National Heritage List for England: Historic England. 2016. National Heritage List for England. Historic Houses Register. Digital. Accessed 19/07/2016.
SDV359354Website: National Monument Record. 2016. Pastscape. http://www.pastscape.org.uk. Website. Accessed 19/07/2016.

Associated Monuments

MDV8740Related to: Cottages 35 meters north-east of church, North Bovey (Building)
MDV114796Related to: Granite trough with pump on the Green, North Bovey (Monument)
MDV80789Related to: K6 telephone box, North Bovey (Building)
MDV35578Related to: September Cottage, North Bovey (Building)
MDV35512Related to: Three cottages in North Bovey (Building)

Associated Finds: none recorded

Associated Events: none recorded


Date Last Edited:Jul 19 2016 11:37AM