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HER Number (PRN):01471
Name:Old Welsh Bridge (St George's Bridge) and Gate, and Mardol Gate
Type of Record:Monument
Protected Status:Conservation Area: Shrewsbury

Monument Types

  • BASTION (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1540 AD)
  • BRIDGE (12th century to Late 18th century - 1160 AD? to 1795 AD?)
  • GATEHOUSE (13th century to Late 18th century - 1272 AD? to 1791 AD)

Summary

Variously called St George's Bridge, Walshebrugge and Walshemanne's Brigge. Over the first pier from the Shrewsbury side stood a twin turreted gatehouse, reputedly dating to the reign of Edward I and there was a smaller square gatehouse over the first wet arch from the Frankwell side.The bridge was superseded by the present Welsh Bridge in 1793-5 and was demolished in 1795.

Parish:Shrewsbury, Shrewsbury and Atcham, Shropshire
Map Sheet:SJ41SE
Grid Reference:SJ 4894 1278

Related records

62404Parent of: Surviving section of St Georges Bridge, The Old Welsh Bridge (Monument)
10002Parent of: Welsh Bridge, Shrewsbury (Building)
62572Related to: Frankwell Ford (Monument)
04696Related to: Frankwell Quay (Monument)
01470Related to: St George's Hospital, Frankwell (Monument)

Associated Finds: None recorded

Associated Events

  • ESA2011 - 1960 field observation by the Ordnance Survey
  • ESA2012 - 1993 evaluation of proposed flood alleviation scheme at Frankwell and Greyfriars by Giffords
  • ESA4628 - 1994 WB on geotechnical trial pits for proposed flood alleviation scheme at Frankwell
  • ESA5895 - 2002-2003 WB on Frankwell Flood Alleviation Scheme
  • ESA6025 - 2005 Evaluation and WB at Shrewsbury NEV by GGAT
  • ESA6378 - 2009 WB at Mardol Quay Gardens, Shrewsbury by Oxford Archaeology
  • ESA7197 - 2006-2007 Archaeological Investigations at the Old Welsh Bridge, Frankwell Quay, Shrewsbury by MOLA
  • ESA7943 - 2005 DBA on NEV (Theatre Severn site) by Nigel Baker
  • ESA7944 - 2005 DBA of New Entertainment Venue (Theatre Severn site) by Ove Arup & partners

Description

Variously called St George's Bridge (1154-89), (1275-7), Walshebrugge (1336) and Walshemanne's Brigge in 1351. The bridge was superseded by the present Welsh Bridge in 1793-5 and was demolished in 1795 [<1a><1b>]. A cage of wood and pryveys erected in 1496-7, and taken down in 1576-7. Jervoise [<1a>] quotes Leland as saying 'the Welsh Bridge having six great arches of stone … hath at one end of it a great Gate to enter by into the town, and at the other end towards Wales a mighty strong towre'. The Welsh or St George's Gate, demolished in 1773, had a massive square battlemented tower with a guardroom. The Mardol Gate was demolished in 1791. There is a reference to the fall of the tower and of the great part of the gatehouse at the Welsh Bridge in 1672 [<1c>] <1>

Keele Beds sandstone remains standing a few metres inshore on Frankwell Quay are identifiable as the surviving dry arch, carriageway ramp, and abutment of the Old Welsh Bridge, visited and described by A W Ward in 1935 (p151, n.1) <1c>

The gate at the Welsh end of the bridge had a strong out-work and the battlements of the bridge adjacent were pierced with loops and were higher than the remainder. A massive square tower above. Taken down c 1770. The gate on the town side had massive machicolations on the north side over the pointed arch. Round turrets resting on the bridge piers flanked the entrance passage. The S face, built in 1539, was in classical style. Demolished 1791 <2>

The first historical reference to a pontem S. Georgii in Shrewsbury dates to c1160. This bridge lay upstream of the present Welsh Bridge, crossing the river from the foot of Mardol. There is a tradition that an even earlier bridge crossed from the bottom of Roushill Lane, but there is no firm evidence for this. The bridge was altered and repaired many times over the centuries. In its final form it appears to have had six main arches with a dry arch beneath the Frankwell abutment. Over the first pier from the Shrewsbury side stood a twin turreted gatehouse, reputedly dating to the reign of Edward I (1272-1307) and there was a smaller square gatehouse over the first wet arch from the Frankwell side. The Frankwell tower was demolished in 1773 because it obstructed traffic flow and the bridge was sold by auction for demolition in 1795, on condition that the bridge was dismantled to the level of the river bed, only the Frankwell dry arch being retained. Demolition took a while - a tourist noted that two arches were still standing in 1797. It is not known whether the final demolition was in fact as thorough as required by the terms of sale, and remains may still survive. On the Frankwell side the bridge approach may survive immediately east of the former chapel building: the roadway is raised up and retained by a sandstone wall which may be part of the dry arch of the bridge. Ward [<1c><6>] claims that in 1935 it was possible to enter the dry arch from the adjacent building. A photograph [<7>] exists of the arch. ->

-> One of the trial trenches (Trench 2) for this 1993 evaluation in connection with the proposed Shrewsbury Flood Alleviation Scheme was on the line of the old bridge. No trace of any structure was found, however. This could either be because the bridge was indeed entirely demolished or because the trench had fallen between bridge piers. <4>

At a depth of 6.2m in a geotechnical borehole aligned with the former location of the bridge wood was found which may represent the remains of wooden piles of one of the piers of the bridge. <5>

Its origins are unknown, but the early designation of the predecessor to the English Bridge as the Stone Bridge may suggest that the stone Welsh Bridge known from illustrations, documents, and surviving remains (PRN 62404) may have had a timber predecessor. Two charters of Henry I of 1121 referring to 'two bridges at Shrewsbury' may imply that the Welsh Bridge and Stone Bridge were in existence by that date. <8>

States that the bridge was almost certainly in existence well before the Norman Conquest. <9>

The location of the bridge was confirmed during a 2002-2003 watching brief on the Frankwell Flood Alleviation Scheme. No associated structures survived on the waterfront, but one abutment of the bridge was still visible as a standing structure some 32m behind the new flood defence wall and the post medieval waterfront. <10>

Archaeological evaluation carried out at the site of the proposed new entertainment venue in Shrewsbury during May and June 2005. Archaeological structures relating to the bridge were discovered in trenches 5, 6 and 12 including a significant masonry structure believed to be part of the bridge, a rough cobbled surface dating to the late 16th or early 17th century believed to be the last episode of alteration to the bridge approach road which was sealed by a cobbled surface of late 18th century date associated with quayside warehouses and a substantial masonry structure with grooves eroded by ropes believed to be a bridge pier. The findings provided a good indication of the location and minimum extent of St George’s Hospital and Frankwell Quay and also indicated that a large amount of masonry relating to these structures survives on the site, both above and below ground level. <11>

Full report on the 2005 assessment, evaluation and watching brief on the New Entertainment Venue (NEV) site. Includes a discussion of the fieldwork (<11a>), further documentary research [see also <11d>] <11b> and specialist finds reports (<11c>). <11a><11b><11c>

Baseline desk-based assessment of the site identified the main development sequence of the bridge and features associated with it on site. <11d>

Detailed historical background research was undertaken in 2005 ahead of and in conjunction with the evaluation (see <11>) of the site of the New Entertainment Venue (NEV). This included an assessment of the layout, architecture, engineering and construction of the bridge, as recorded by the documentary and cartographic evidence. The Welsh Bridge, or St George's Bridge, was probably built some time before 1121, probably at first in timber. Just how long before is a major research question (discussed in detail in source). It is considered possible, from the topographic evidence, that the bridge construction may have predated the conquest. The bridge was moved in 1795. ->

-> The report includes a discussion of the medieval form of the bridge, its decline and final demolition, an assessment of the surviving remains and the evidence for buildings adjoining both sides of the bridge. <11e>

In February 2009 an archaeological watching brief undertaken at Mardol Quay Gardens, Shrewsbury, revealed evidence of modern landscaping overlying 19th-century deposits including a brick path. No deposits, features or artefacts relating to the medieval wharf or bridge were observed. There is a possibility that earlier deposits remain in situ but the depth of impact during this phase of work was insufficient to expose these deposits. <12>

An interim report on archaeological investigations during the construction of Theatre Severn, which recorded a number of significant features at the northern end at the Old Welsh Bridge, particularly associated with its fortification in the 12th-century. An undated sandstone rubble trapezoidal building on the northern approach to the Welsh Bridge was recorded during the archaeological invesitgations; this was interpreted as as gatehouse probably associated with the 12th-century bridge. ->

-> During the 12th or 13th century it appears that the fortifications of the northern bridge approach were replaced by a pair of square sandstone rubble bastions, presumably joined by a gatehouse which spanned the bridge roadway. The only dating for this phase of fortifications is sherds of 12th or 13th–century pottery recovered from the levelling dumps post-dating the demolition of the east bastion. The eastern bastion was discovered by excavation of trenches through the floor the 19th–century cellars on the east side of the surviving bridge arch. During this period overbank flood deposits were accumulating on the area of higher land to the east of the bridge approach road, where the presence of pits and other features suggest the existence of road side settlement. ->

-> During the 13th or 14th century the bastions were rebuilt on a larger scale and faced with sandstone ashlar. The new east bastion possessed a diagonal southern end and while the layout of the west bastion is conjectural, but it is likely that it was rebuilt to match the other one. This rebuilding may be linked with the 1284 charter which records the bridge had been ‘broken’ and damaged by floods, so tolls were to be collected for three years to pay for its repair. As the collection of tolls was extended for a further five years it implies there a major programme of rebuilding was being carried out. The new west and east bastions were not quite symmetrical. The crucial thing about these bastions is they extended across the line of the present arch, so either this arch did not exist at this period or it was blocked. In circa 1543 the bridge was described as consisting of six arches, when by the 18th century it possessed seven. This gatehouse was shown on the Burghley map of Shrewsbury circa 1575, it is labelled ‘ye Welsh Gate’. This map shows how the Welsh Gate served as barbican to protect the main gatehouse, the Mardol Gate, at the southern end of the bridge from surprise attack. ->

-> At some time the western bastion was shortened at which time the bridge arch was either reopened or constructed. Presumably the east bastion was shortened at the same time, but this not known as this portion of the site was not excavated during the current work. This rebuilding perhaps took place in 1608 when Rowland Jenks built a quay at Frankwell as it would have provided vehicular access to the quay from the east. Rocque’s map of 1746, shows that the east bastion had now been replaced a large rectangular building (this is shown on some of the 18th century views of the Welsh Bridge) and by this date there was block of houses built on the east side of the bridge too. A watercolour of 1769 shows the bridge open arch (then known as the ‘dry arch’) a quay to the west side of it and how the west bastion had been converted into a cottage. <13>

An article on the medieval fortification of the Old Welsh Bridge, incorporating the results of the recent excavation work (see <13>). ->

-> When the Old Welsh Bridge was constructed is uncertain, but it was probably in existence by 1121, when a charter refers to two bridges in the town. It is possible that the early 12th century Old Welsh Bridge was constructed of timber not masonry. In 1155 the Old Welsh Bridge was described as 'St George's Bridge' because of the proximity of St George's Hospital to the Welsh Gate. In 1262 there is a record of the receipt of tolls from the Old Welsh Bridge. It has been claimed that there was a royal charter of 1284, which allowed the town to collect for three years for the repair and rebuilding of the Old Welsh Bridge. This would imply that a major rebuilding of the bridge took place during this period. Research to date has failed to locate this charter and its citation may therefore be a mistake. Mentioned by Leland. ->

-> The New Welsh Bridge was constructed in 1793-1795 and all of the Old Welsh Bridge was demolished, apart from its northernmost arch and its flanking buildings. The old bridge subsequently became a cul de sac. After the construction of the new bridge it was decided to reclaim the shallow inlet between the two bridges, so the river bank was moved southwards some 30-35m to its present location and the ground level recalimed. This resulted in the remaining portion of the bridge becoming a landlocked alleyway. The western bastion of the bridge was retained as a cottage. A late 18th century rectangular building was constructed next to it, and the surviving bridge arch was utilized as its cellar. <14>

Brief mention of recent excavations in article in The Times. <15>

A brief overview article on a recent survey of England's fortified medieval bridges and bridge chapels. In 1643 Shrewsbury Corporation was instructed by Charles I to place cannons on the English and Welsh Bridges and in 1644 they were ordered to replace the 'doors' of the gatehouse on the Welsh Bridge. ->

-> Includes brief discussion of the 2006-2007 excavations of the Old Welsh Bridge. Excavations in 2006 revealed the landward 'dry arch' with 19th century brick-paved cellar floor, the remains of the final phase of the western bastion of the Welsh gate and the cobbled road surface of the former bridge. To the rear, a series of 19th century brick-built cellared buildings were recorded. <16>

A charter of 1284 states that the bridge was broken and damaged and in need of repair. This could imply that the bridge was then quite old, but it should be remembered that the the bridge was probably of timber arches on stone piers at this date and thus easily damaged by floods. <17>

Interim report on 2007 fieldwork. <18>

Post-excavation assessment and updated project design for the results of the 2005-2007 archaeological and geoarchaeological investigations undertaken in advance of the construction of the Theatre Severn. This brings together the analyses conducted to date (2010) and suggests that the site should be published in Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society. Contains much detailed information and specialist reports on the artefactual, ecofactual and structural evidence recorded. ->

-> The main results of this programme of work were investigation of the surviving portion of the Old Welsh Bridge (the northern most arch of the medieval and later structure), its unique sequence of defensive bastions, the remains of medieval and post medieval buildings adjoining the northern bridge approach road including part of the cemetery of St George’s Hospital (established before c 1160). In the western portion of the site geoarchaeological investigation revealed a sequence of riverine deposits spanning from the late glacial to the post-medieval periods. Here there was a massive masonry abutment and a barge quay associated with the construction of the new Welsh Bridge (1793-95) some 60m downstream of the earlier one (PRN 5808). ->

-> The construction of the new bridge was a catalyst for a number of major changes within the area of site. Firstly, a huge area of the existing river inlet was reclaimed, moving the shoreline some 30 to 35m southward. Second, all the old bridge apart from the northernmost arch (the dry arch) and its adjoining southern pier was demolished. This masonry was retained as a landlocked alleyway to serve the existing properties on either side of the bridge. During the early 19th century a series of brick-built, cellared buildings were constructed around the remains of the bridge and the arch was incorporated into the cellars of one of these properties. These properties were demolished in c 1960, and afterwards the area was used as temporary car parking until 2005. <19>

Full report on the investigation at the Old Welsh Bridge, published in Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society in 2015. Includes extensive reports on the background history of the site, tracing the development of the area from the 11th century through to the 21st century. Incorporates a number of specialist reports on the material from the site. ->

-> The documentary and archaeological evidence for the development of the bridge from the 11th century to its demolition in 1795 is discussed in detail. ->

-> Frankwell developed as a bridgehead suburb of the 9th century AD burh of Shrewsbury. It is probable that the site was first occupied during the 10th century, judging by the presence of residual finds, but the earliest securely dated activity on site consisted of external dumping during the 12th century or later to raise the ground level. Initially the Severn was crossed here via a ford, but by the early 12th century the Welsh Bridge connected Frankwell to the Mardol district of
Shrewsbury. It is probable that the Frankwell end of the Norman period bridge was defended by a trapezoidal masonry gatehouse. During the 12th century it appears that the first phase of bridge defences was replaced by a pair of square masonry bastions. It is possible that this rebuilding was finked with the replacement of a timber bridge by a masonry one During the 13th or 14th century the gatehouse bastions were rebuilt on a larger scale. It is probable that this
rebuilding was connected with a royal grant of 1282. These bastions were known as the Welsh Gate and they were the outermost element of the bridges fortifications. The bridge also possessed an inner gatehouse, known as St George's Gate, and, further south, a drawbridge tower known as the Mardol
Gate. Fortified medieval bridges are now very rare in England and Wales due to their demolition during the post-medieval period, but ongoing research has established that there were at least 38 other examples of this phenomenon, including the English Bridge on the opposite side of Shrewsbury. On 12 August 1485 Henry Tudor (later Henry VII) crossed the Welsh Bridge unopposed on his way eastwards to meet . Richard III's army at Bosworth. ->

-> By 1789 the Welsh Bridge was in poor structural condition, and Shrewsbury Corporation therefore decided to replace it. During 1793-5 the new Welsh Bridge was constructed some 60m downstream of the earlier bridge. <20>


<00> Shropshire County Council SMR, Site and Monuments Record (SMR) cards, SMR Card for PRN SA 01471 (Card index). SSA20722.


<01b> Pearson W, 1824, Views of the Antiquities of Salop (Monograph). SSA4413.


<01c> Ward A W, 1935, Bridges of Shrewsbury, p131, p133-134, p147, p150-151 illus (Monograph). SSA5617.


<01a> Jervoise E, 1936, Ancient Bridges of Wales and the West of England, p132-135 (Monograph). SSA580.


<01> Ordnance Survey, 1960, Ordnance Survey Record Card SJ41SE103 (Card index). SSA5618.


<02> Owen H, 1808, Some Account of the Ancient and Present State of Shrewsbury, p79-83 (Monograph). SSA5372.


<03> Pevsner Nikolaus, 1958, Buildings of England (Shropshire), p271 (Monograph). SSA110.


<04> Gifford and Partners Ltd, 1994, Report on an archaeological evaluation ... proposed Shrewsbury Flood Alleviation Scheme (Excavation report). SSA5615.


<05> Gifford and Partners Ltd, 1994, Archaeological Watching Brief ... Proposed Shrewsbury Flood Alleviation Scheme, p1 (Watching brief report). SSA5616.


<06> Gaydon A T (ed), 1973, Victoria County History 2: Ecclesiastical Organisation, Religious Houses, Schools and Sports (Volume). SSA540.


<07> Anon, 1950s, Photograph of the dry arch of the old Welsh Bridge (Photograph). SSA21114.


<08> Rees M U, 1975, The Cartulary of Shrewsbury Abbey, No 42, No 47b (Monograph). SSA10576.


<09> Baker Nigel J, 2004, An archaeological watching brief at Mardol Head, Shrewsbury (Watching brief report). SSA22080.


<10> Not established, Frankwell Flood Alleviation Scheme, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: a report on an archaeological watching brief (Watching brief report). SSA22134.


<11e> Baker Nigel J, 2005, Frankwell Quay: an archaeological & historical assessment of the Shrewsbury N.E.V site (Deskbased survey report). SSA28974.


<11a> Higgins Jo, 2005, Shrewsbury NEV, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: report on archaeological evaluation, watching brief and further historical study. Vol 1: archaeological evaluation and watching brief (Archaeological fieldwork report). SSA28975.


<11b> Baker Nigel J, 2005, Shrewsbury NEV, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: report on archaeological evaluation, watching brief and further historical study. Vol 2: further historical study (Archaeological fieldwork report). SSA28976.


<11> Higgins J, 2005, Shrewsbury NEV, Shropshire: Archaeological Evaluation and Watching Brief Summary Report (Excavation report). SSA22443.


<11d> Hughes R and Clinton L, 2005, Shrewsbury New Entertainment Venue: heritage desk study, Section 4.2.6 (Deskbased survey report). SSA28983.


<11c> Evans, G, Higgins, J, Locock, M, Lodwick, M, Ratkai, S, Sell, S and Sherman, A, 2006, Shrewsbury NEV, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: report on archaeological evaluation, watching brief and further historical study. Vol 3: specialist finds reports (Archaeological fieldwork report). SSA28977.


<12> Sims M, 2009, Quantum Leap, Mardol Quay Gardens, Shrewsbury: archaeological watching brief (Watching brief report). SSA23451.


<13> Watson B, 2007?, Archaeological Investigations at the Old Welsh Bridge, Frankwell Quay, Shrewsbury (on Discovering Shropshire's History) (Webpage). SSA26787.


<14> Watson B, 2011, The Old Welsh Bridge, Shrewsbury, England - a rediscovered fortified medieval bridge (Article in monograph). SSA24048.


<15> The Times, 2011, Uncovering our vanished fortified bridges (Saturday December 3, 2011) (Newspaper article). SSA27164.


<16> Harrison, D., McKeague, P. and Watson, B., 2010, England's fortified medieval bridges and bridge chapels: a new survey (Article in serial). SSA27165.


<17> Morriss Richard K, 1996, The Welsh Bridge Development, Shrewsbury: an Archaeological Desk-top Study, pp.15-16 (Deskbased survey report). SSA10661.


<18> Various, 2007, West Midlands Archaeology vol 50, pp.18-19 (Volume). SSA27725.


<19> Watson B, 2010, Archaeological investigations at the New Entertainment Venue, Frankwell, Shrewsbury: post-excavation assessment and updated project design (Project design). SSA28059.


<20> Watson B and Phillpotts C, 2015, The Old Welsh Bridge, Shrewsbury: Excavations at the Severn Theatre Venue, Frankwell, Shrewsbury, 2006-7 (Volume). SSA28665.

Sources

[00]SSA20722 - Card index: Shropshire County Council SMR. Site and Monuments Record (SMR) cards. SMR record cards. SMR Card for PRN SA 01471.
[01b]SSA4413 - Monograph: Pearson W. 1824. Views of the Antiquities of Salop.
[01c]SSA5617 - Monograph: Ward A W. 1935. Bridges of Shrewsbury. p131, p133-134, p147, p150-151 illus.
[01]SSA5618 - Card index: Ordnance Survey. 1960. Ordnance Survey Record Card SJ41SE103. Ordnance Survey record cards. SJ41SE103.
[01a]SSA580 - Monograph: Jervoise E. 1936. Ancient Bridges of Wales and the West of England. p132-135.
[02]SSA5372 - Monograph: Owen H. 1808. Some Account of the Ancient and Present State of Shrewsbury. p79-83.
[03]SSA110 - Monograph: Pevsner Nikolaus. 1958. Buildings of England (Shropshire). Buildings of England. p271.
[04]SSA5615 - Excavation report: Gifford and Partners Ltd. 1994. Report on an archaeological evaluation ... proposed Shrewsbury Flood Alleviation Scheme. Gifford and Partners Rep. Rep 6485.04.
[05]SSA5616 - Watching brief report: Gifford and Partners Ltd. 1994. Archaeological Watching Brief ... Proposed Shrewsbury Flood Alleviation Scheme. Gifford and Partners Rep. Rep 6485.01/2. p1.
[06]SSA540 - Volume: Gaydon A T (ed). 1973. Victoria County History 2: Ecclesiastical Organisation, Religious Houses, Schools and Sports. Victoria County History of Shropshire. Vol 2.
[07]SSA21114 - Photograph: Anon. 1950s. Photograph of the dry arch of the old Welsh Bridge.
[08]SSA10576 - Monograph: Rees M U. 1975. The Cartulary of Shrewsbury Abbey. No 42, No 47b.
[09]SSA22080 - Watching brief report: Baker Nigel J. 2004. An archaeological watching brief at Mardol Head, Shrewsbury.
[10]SSA22134 - Watching brief report: Not established. Frankwell Flood Alleviation Scheme, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: a report on an archaeological watching brief. Marches Archaeology Series.
[11]SSA22443 - Excavation report: Higgins J. 2005. Shrewsbury NEV, Shropshire: Archaeological Evaluation and Watching Brief Summary Report. 2005/048.
[11e]SSA28974 - Deskbased survey report: Baker Nigel J. 2005. Frankwell Quay: an archaeological & historical assessment of the Shrewsbury N.E.V site. Nigel Baker Rep.
[11a]SSA28975 - Archaeological fieldwork report: Higgins Jo. 2005. Shrewsbury NEV, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: report on archaeological evaluation, watching brief and further historical study. Vol 1: archaeological evaluation and watching brief. GGAT Rep. 2005/063.
[11b]SSA28976 - Archaeological fieldwork report: Baker Nigel J. 2005. Shrewsbury NEV, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: report on archaeological evaluation, watching brief and further historical study. Vol 2: further historical study. GGAT Rep. 2005/063.
[11c]SSA28977 - Archaeological fieldwork report: Evans, G, Higgins, J, Locock, M, Lodwick, M, Ratkai, S, Sell, S and Sherman, A. 2006. Shrewsbury NEV, Shrewsbury, Shropshire: report on archaeological evaluation, watching brief and further historical study. Vol 3: specialist finds reports. GGAT Rep. 2005/063.
[11d]SSA28983 - Deskbased survey report: Hughes R and Clinton L. 2005. Shrewsbury New Entertainment Venue: heritage desk study. ARUP Rep. 68707. Section 4.2.6.
[12]SSA23451 - Watching brief report: Sims M. 2009. Quantum Leap, Mardol Quay Gardens, Shrewsbury: archaeological watching brief. OAU Rep.
[13]SSA26787 - Webpage: Watson B. 2007?. Archaeological Investigations at the Old Welsh Bridge, Frankwell Quay, Shrewsbury (on Discovering Shropshire's History). http://www.discovershropshire.org.uk/html/search/verb/GetRecord/theme:20070117154530.
[14]SSA24048 - Article in monograph: Watson B. 2011. The Old Welsh Bridge, Shrewsbury, England - a rediscovered fortified medieval bridge. Archaeology of Bridges.
[15]SSA27164 - Newspaper article: The Times. 2011. Uncovering our vanished fortified bridges (Saturday December 3, 2011). The Times. 114.
[16]SSA27165 - Article in serial: Harrison, D., McKeague, P. and Watson, B.. 2010. England's fortified medieval bridges and bridge chapels: a new survey. Medieval Settlement Research. 25. pp.45-51.
[17]SSA10661 - Deskbased survey report: Morriss Richard K. 1996. The Welsh Bridge Development, Shrewsbury: an Archaeological Desk-top Study. Mercian Heritage Series. 26. pp.15-16.
[18]SSA27725 - Volume: Various. 2007. West Midlands Archaeology vol 50. West Midlands Archaeology. Vol 50. pp.18-19.
[19]SSA28059 - Project design: Watson B. 2010. Archaeological investigations at the New Entertainment Venue, Frankwell, Shrewsbury: post-excavation assessment and updated project design. Museum of London Rep. NEV06.
[20]SSA28665 - Volume: Watson B and Phillpotts C. 2015. The Old Welsh Bridge, Shrewsbury: Excavations at the Severn Theatre Venue, Frankwell, Shrewsbury, 2006-7. Trans Shropshire Archaeol Hist Soc. 90.
Date Last Edited:Jun 24 2016 4:07PM