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HER Number (PRN):01198
Name:Clun Castle
Type of Record:Monument
Protected Status:Conservation Area: Clun
Listed Building (I) 1295475: REMAINS OF CLUN CASTLE
Scheduled Monument 1011021: Clun Castle

Monument Types

Summary

Scheduled Monument and Grade I Listed Building: Clun Castle, the seat of the Honour of Clun (a Norman border barony) was probably founded at the turn of the 12th century. With its two baileys and earthworks of medieval garden and water management features, it is one of the finest examples of motte and bailey castles in Shropshire.

Parish:Clun, South Shropshire, Shropshire
Map Sheet:SO28SE
Grid Reference:SO 2984 8093

Related records

07784Parent of: Formal Garden Remains West of Clun Castle (Monument)

Associated Finds: None recorded

Associated Events

  • ESA1665 - 1973 field observation by the Ordnance Survey
  • ESA1666 - 1980 field observation by English Heritage
  • ESA1667 - 1981 field observation by English Heritage
  • ESA1668 - 1991 building survey of Clun Castle prior to EH programme of repairs by City of Hereford Archaeology Unit
  • ESA1669 - 1992 WB on groundworks associated with fencing and regrading Clun Castle by CHAU
  • ESA1670 - 1993 WB on excavations for display panels at Clun Castle, Shropshire by CHAU
  • ESA5599 - 1989-1990 assessment of Clun Castle by CHAU
  • ESA6211 - 2008 WB at Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire, by SCCAS
  • ESA7368 - 1990 building survey, monitoring and excavation at Clun Castle, Clun by CHAU
  • ESA8032 - 2016 archive assessment of work from the early 1990s at Clun Castle by P J Pikes and Ron Shomesmith
  • ESA8034 - 2012 Conservation survey of Clun Castle by Headland Archaeology (Ref: CCCS10)

Description

Clun Castle has a high mound at the point of a sharp bend of the river Clun and inner and outer baileys stretching from the mound away from the river. A deep moat encircles the mound and the baileys <1a>
Clun Castle is mentioned in pipe rolls for 1160-64 and 1215AD and in charters of 1140-50 and 1157. The site was probably fortified by Robert de Say who owned the land at Domesday. A small rising on the mound and fragments of a curtain wall may belong to this period; the wall towers were added later. The keep is of four storeys, two of them below the level of the top of the mound. <1b>

Aerial photographs of Clun Castle, spanning 1968-1989. <2>-<9>

Castle, remains of. 1090-1110 with C13 additions by the Fitzallans. Coursed limestone rubble with roughly squared facing and sandstone ashlar dressings. Extensive earthworks with motte to West and 3 baileys to East; the ruins stand on the motte with the keep to the North, pair of Cl3 semi-circular curtain wall towers to West and fragment of wall to South. Keep: walls remaining to North, West and East, basement and 3 storeys; wide clasping buttresses and battered basement to North; scattered round-arched openings on each floor. Towers: fragments of semi-circular towers, that to the South with 2 dressed stone arches in the North side. Small fragment of curtain wall to South. The castle was built in conjunction with the planned town laid out to the East; it stands high up in a loop of the River Clun near its confluence with the River Unk (incorrectly called the Urk in the Ancient Monument description) and the strategic significance of the site is easily appreciated in vistas from the surrounding hills and especially from the Clun valley to the West. A.M. County No. 3. <11>

Keep: a rectangular tower 48ft N/S (recte E/W) by 68ft (recte N/S). Walls 11ft thick at base 6ft at summit. The walling between the round towers on the motte was described in 1909 as containing a C14 fireplace and two fragments of windows. <13>

The castle was ruinous by 1539. An extent of the manor in 1272 describes castle as small but well built. Roof of the tower (i.e. the keep) needed leading, and bridge in need of repair. The bailey contained a grange, stable and bakehouse all in a weak state. There was a ditch, and an unfinished gate on the bailey wall. <14>

Brief account from historical sources (unidentified). Castle attached in 1195-6 (stormed and burnt by Rese, a Prince of South Wales) and in August 1216 (attacked by King John). Clun was in the custody of the crown in 1233. <15>

Brief notes on a site at Castle Cottage Garden, with pertinent details of the history of the castle. Includes a sequence of copies of cartographic material as appendices. <18>

Planning consultations 1985-1991. <30><31><32><33><34>

In 1991 English Heritage took the castle into guardianship and began to plan a programme of repair. CHAU were commissioned to produce an outline history of the site [<37>], and then to survey the curtain wall, the two flanking towers and then the Keep or Great Tower [<36>]. Following detailed analysis of the Great Tower, CHAU concluded that it was of C13 date, although with a deliberately Norman external appearance. They suggested that it had been built as a suite of separate lodgings for the hunting guests of the Earl of Arundel towards the end of the C13. <35><36>

A stone by stone survey was carried out of the great tower, also known as the keep of the castle, a structure standing to almost its original height at Clun. The building is in fact not a keep but a later building dating probably to the second half of the 13th century. This survey provided the basis for the analysis of the fabric, which accompanied by the outline history report [ESA5599] provide the basis for the further development of the castle as a whole. <36><36a>

An outline of the history of Clun Castle, Shropshire and its local surroundings was compiled by the City of Hereford Archaeology Unit, in 1990, in conjunction with a proposed long term programme of renovation by English Heritage. The report deliberately makes no attempt to describe or analyse the fabric of the castle itself, concentrating purely on the historical evidence. <37>

In October and November 1992 CHAU carried out a watching brief on various groundworks at the castle, in conjunction with the construction of safety fences, lightning conductors and regrading of the internal levels of the great tower. Twelve post holes and six trenches were excavated in total for fence posts and lightning conductors. None of the trenches penetrated significant archaeological levels and only two of the postholes produced any archaeological information. The regrading of the interior levels of the great tower uncovered archaeological layers at the southern end, with a mortar floor and a small section of cross-wall recorded. <38>

Watching brief carried out in conjunction with the installation of display panels at Clun Castle, Shropshire in 1993. A total of 6 small trenches were excavated at different locations around the castle. Due to the limited size of the trenches, it was difficult to form any significant conclusions. Two areas near to the newly constructed footbridge were rotavated. This unearthed much Victorian and modern pottery most likely to be associated with the annual Clun fair. <39>

Evaluated for MPP in 1990-1, High score as one of 15 Tower Keep castles <41>
Evaluated for MPP in 1990-1, High score as one of 46 Motte and Bailey castles <42>

Scheduling revised in 1995. Scheduling description: ->

-> The monument includes the earthwork and masonry remains of Clun Castle motte and bailey and a series of water management earthworks situated adjacent to the River Clun below the confluence of the River Clun with the River Unk.->

-> The motte and its two baileys occupy a small but strategically strong prominence of high ground contained around the west and south sides within a meander of the River Clun. The castle was the seat of the Honour of Clun, a border barony, and is believed to have been founded between 1090 and 1110 by the Norman knight Picot de Say who fought with William the Conqueror in 1066. The castle buildings were originally of timber but these were destroyed by fire in 1196 when the castle fell to the Welsh Prince Rese, though by 1233 the castle had been rebuilt and withstood a second attack by the Welsh. In the second half of the 13th century the castle was rebuilt in stone by the Fitz Alan family. At its greatest extent it included inner and outer baileys with tower and keep, domestic buildings, a water garden and fishpond and a bridge linking the two baileys. By 1300 Clun was no longer a permanent residence, the Fitz Alans having moved to Arundel Castle in Sussex. Clun Castle, however, continued to function as a centre for the administration of the border barony and as a hunting lodge until its desertion by 1540. ->

-> The castle motte lies in the north west quarter of the site with its two baileys to the east and south east. The motte has been created from a natural prominence, rather than built up. On the west side the site is protected by the river and the steep scarp slope of the hill which has been artificially steepened to enhance its defensive strength. Around the remaining sides a ditch has been cut to isolate a portion of the hill summit so forming the motte. At its base it measures some 80m north to south by 76m east to west rising 12m from the bottom of the ditch to a summit 50m by 40m. On the summit are the ruins of the castle keep: a fragment of the western curtain wall and an impressive late 13th century great tower. The latter stands 28m high built into the north face of the motte. It appears to have been built for prestige rather than defence as its position on the side of the motte makes it vulnerable to assault by undermining. It originally contained well-appointed chambers on three floors over undercrofts. An entrance to the tower in the west wall shows similar lack of regard for security, facing outwards rather than inwards towards the motte summit. ->

-> The larger bailey lies to the immediate south east of the motte, separated from it by a substantial ditch 10m wide, except at its north western corner where a causeway allows access to the motte. The ditch continues around the north and east sides of the bailey. Along the south west the natural hill slope and river provide defence, the hill slope being cut back to increase the steepness of the scarp and create a berm averaging 4m wide towards the base of the slope. The level plateau-like summit of the bailey is roughly triangular in plan with dimensions of 80m north west to south east by 40m transversely. There are traces of an inner bank O.7m high running along the eastern edge of the bailey. ->

-> To the north of this enclosure and linked to it by a causeway is the second smaller bailey. It lies at a slightly lower level than the former, its upper surface being some 8m above the base of the ditch. This small roughly rectangular enclosure has internal dimensions of 42m east to west by 40m north to south. An engraving by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck in 1731 shows that a court house was situated on this bailey. The court house was demolished in 1789 when Clun Town Hall was built. To the north of this bailey and of the motte are the remains of a strong bank. It runs for some 80m curving around the base of the bailey and motte, averages 8m wide and stands up to 3.6m high. To the north west of this bank the natural prominence from which most of the castle earthworks have been created continues as a flat topped spur running to the east of and parallel to the river course. After approximately 60m the western scarp wraps around to the east to form the northern end of the prominence, continuing for approximately 30m as a low scarp up to 1.3m high before ending on the rising ground to the east. The area between this northern extremity and the castle earthworks themselves is hollowed to an average depth of 2.5m forming a flat bottomed depression measuring some 60m north west to south east by 60m transversely. Although now dry this feature may have originally contained water in the form of a small ornamental mere or fishpond. To the west of the castle, on the west bank of the River Clun, are a series of linear earthworks believed to be the remains of garden features associated with the castle. The earthworks appear to be designed to control and manage water. At their southern extent a well defined north east facing scarp up to 3.2m high curves from the river towards the north west for 160m before turning to the west and fading out towards the modern roadway. To the east of this scarp and parallel to it, is a second, south facing, scarp 1.2m high forming the eastern side of a broad channel 6m wide. Some 80m along this channel and adjoining its north side is a sub-circular mound or platform 14m in diameter and up to 0.5m high. The central portion of this is hollowed to a depth of 0.2m and may represent the site of a building. To the north west of this feature the main channel continues bounded on its east side by a low bank. Between this and the river are a series of shallow channels up to 1.5m wide and 0.3m deep arranged in a rectangular pattern. These are bounded along their northern side by a bank with a channel 6m wide and 0.5m deep parallel to it on its north side. Further north again a roughly square ditched enclosure can be recognised. This enclosure, the full extent of which is visible on aerial photographs of the area, is orientated roughly north to south and has sides of 60m. It is crossed by a modern field drain and hedge which cuts diagonally through it north west to south east. Differential management of the two fields has resulted in the southern half, which lies in undisturbed permanent pasture, being better preserved than the northern portion. Even so substantial buried remains still survive in the northern part of this feature. The southern part of the enclosure is bounded by a well defined shallow ditch 5m wide and 0.5m deep. To the north of the hedgeline the ditch remains visible as a very slight earthwork. To the north east of the enclosure a shallow plough-spread scarp curves north towards the river. It may represent the edge of a shallow mere which would have lain in the angle of the river supplying water to the channel system to the south through a system of sluices. The bowling green pavilion on the smaller, eastern, bailey, all boundary features, notice boards and metalled surfaces are excluded from the scheduling though the ground beneath these features is included. ->

-> Clun Castle with its second bailey and medieval garden earthworks is one of the finest examples of its class in the county. The castle earthworks will contain valuable archaeological evidence concerning their method of construction and the nature and periods of the castle's occupation. The substantial ruined buildings which survive on the motte will contain significant details relating to the dating and function of Clun Castle and to the development of castle architecture more widely. The earthworks on the west bank of the River Clun are rare examples of late medieval gardens. They survive in good condition and provide valuable information both for the layout of individual garden features relative to each other and relative to the castle, the setting for which they provided. As they are waterlogged, they will provide rare evidence for the plants they contained, in the organic deposits in the bases of the ditches. The site, taken as a whole, also illustrates, particularly, how water was used both for practical and decorative purposes. Environmental material relating to the landscape in which the monument was constructed will be preserved sealed on the old land surface beneath the ramparts and in the ditch fills <43>

Consultation response, 1993 <44>

This castle was probably a timber motte and bailey built very soon after the Conquest. It suffered much from the Welsh. It was burnt in 1196 by Prince Rees, after which it was rebuilt in stone. <45>

By the mid 16th century Leland noted that the castle was ruinous. "Clune Castle longynge to the Erle of Arundel, somewhat ruinus. It hath been bothe strong and well builded". <46>

The castle is last mentioned as a residence in 1653. <47>

In 1888 the motte was c40 yards diameter at the top and stood 60 feet above the ditch. <48>

CMHTS Comment: The town of Clun was burnt by Glyndwr c1400, but it is not clear if the castle was also destroyed at this time [<47><48><51>]. One antiquarian reference suggests it was destroyed at the time of the Long Parliament in the 17th century [<51>]. Morriss [<36>] considers this to be untrue. <49>
CMHTS Report. <50>

Brief history given in a report on visit of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1867. <51>

Details of the history and structure of the castle also given by Renfrey. <52><53>

Aerial photographs taken by Chris Musson between 1996 and 2003. <54>-<61>

On the 15th May 2008 a new interpretation panel was installed at Clun Castle and an archaeological watching brief was carried out to monitor the work. A single post hole for the panel was excavated by hand to a depth on 600mm, with a diameter of 200mm. The post was cut through a homogenous soil of a dark reddish brown loam. No significant archaeological features were seen in the excavations. <63>

Photographed during aerial photographic survey between 2008 and 2011. <64>-<67>

A programme of building recording, monitoring of clearance works and the excavation of two evaluation trenches was carried out on behalf of English Heritage, in association with the consolidation of Clun Castle in summer 1990, in preparation for making it safe for public display. These works included: the stone-by-stone survey of an isolated piece of standing masonry to the SE of the keep (prior to its consolidation); recording of those areas of the keep which were accessible from the ground surface; the outline recording of rooms on the northern side of the keep. Clearance works within the keep, involving the removing of debris were monitored. Subsequently two small scale evaluation trenches were excavated within the keep in connection with plans for the display of this area of the site to the public. ->

-> The limited survey work carried out indicated that when the Duke of Norfolk purchased the castle in the late 19th century, he spent a fair amount of time and money in refurbishing the ruins and making them safe. The evaluative excavation provided a firm indication that much of the basement level of the keep had not been cleared out since the castle was abandoned and that the fill is thus of high archaeological importance. Some clearance had taken place but the disturbance appeared to be fairly localised. <69>

History briefly described (includes aerial photograph). <71>

In 2016, an archive assessment was compiled for Historic England of resources relating to Clun Castle, and particularly focused on work carried out in the early 1990s by City of Hereford Archaeology Unit. The digital archive is available on DVD held in the HER (ESA CD). This includes a number of reports (which are held in the HER events collections - and identified above), a series of photographs taking during the project, extracts from various historical works and copies of site notebooks from two seasons of archaeological work, in 1990 and 1991. See DVD for fuller details. <72>

A conservation survey was undertaken of Clun Castle in 2012, to inform future management of the site. A programme of consultation with various stakeholders identified issues for consideration in the future conservation of the site. The earthworks suffer from human and natural erosion caused by vehicular access on the site, desire-lines caused by members of the public, and riverbank erosion. The Pleasance, a medieval water garden surviving as a series of earthworks on the west bank of the River Clun has suffered the effects of ploughing. ->

-> Clun Castle is set aside from many other similar sites across Britain by a number of attributes. It is relatively untouched (both by archaeologists and antiquarians); it contains well preserved earthworks, masonry structures survive in places; it shares a clear relationship with surrounding topographic features such as the River Clun and low lying ground to the north; it also possesses a strong geographical link with the village. All these aspects combine to create a monument that is easily interpretable, accessible and has the potential to be visually striking. ->

-> The purpose of this Conservation Plan for Clun Castle is to set out a vision for its future management and to provide guidance on risks, opportunities and planning. As with all heritage assets there are both future threats and opportunities that need to be managed. Through the conservation planning process key priorities relating to the site have been drawn up and these broadly encompass: The continued and improved conservation of the monument; The way in which the monument is presented, including appearance and setting; Improving accessibility and community use of the monument. ->

-> The vision for the future of this monument, which stands in one of the country’s more remote historical places, will ensure the ongoing conservation of the evidential and historic features of the site alongside the management of its aesthetic and communal values. This will involve: ensuring that the general management of the site can be undertaken in cost effective ways that are in keeping with its rural aspect; managing the natural processes of erosion (such as the evolving river bank); ensuring that public events can be held in harmony with the long term survival of its vulnerable but clearly defined physical form; and achieving a much wider public knowledge of its existence alongside improved access, orientation and interpretation. ->

-> The conservation plan includes an outline history of the site, a detailed analysis of the standing buildings on site, the major earthworks, an analysis of previous archaeology and historic building recording, an assessment of significance and of vulnerability and conservation needs. <73>

An overview of documentary sources for the history of Clun Castle was prepared in 1991-1993. This was prepared to support archaeological work being undertaken on the castle at this time. <74>

Brief tenurial history, and selection of historic illustrations, photographs and aerial photograph. <75>

Brief history and etching by W. Pearson reproduced. <76>

Discussion of the date of the tower. Photograph of the tower.<77>


<00> Shropshire County Council SMR, Site and Monuments Record (SMR) cards, SMR Card for PRN SA 01198 (Card index). SSA20722.


<01a> Toy S, 1953, Castles of Great Britain, p89-90 (Monograph). SSA4707.


<01b> Renn D R/D F?, 1968, Norman Castles of Britain, p148-150 with plan (Monograph). SSA244.


<01> Ordnance Survey, 1973, Ordnance Survey Record Card SO28SE5 (Card index). SSA4861.


<02> Cambridge University Collection of Air Photos (CUCAP), 1968-Apr-12, CUCAP AUB33 to AUB34 (2 Photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17210.


<03> Musson Chris R, 1981, CPAT 81/50/0018 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17211.


<04> Musson Chris R, 1983-Jul-28, CPAT 83/07/0007 to 0008 and 0010 to 0013 (6 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17212.


<05> Musson Chris R, 1984-Jul-21, CPAT 84/MB/0437 to 0438 and 0441 (3 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17213.


<06> Musson Chris R, 1981-Jul-25, CPAT 81/C/0073 to 0075 (3 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17214.


<07> Musson Chris R, 1983-Jul-28, CPAT 83/C/0182 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17215.


<08> Musson Chris R, 1987-Jan-03, CPAT 87/MB/0030 to 0033 (4 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17216.


<09> Musson Chris R, 1989, CPAT 89/MB/0546 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17217.


<10c> Jones H C, History of Clun (Manuscript). SSA4610.


<10a> Lloyd, 1932, Article in Archaeologia Cambrensis (Article in serial). SSA4860.


<10b> Clun Chamber of Trade, 1980, Clun (TEXT). SSA4859.


<10> Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission (HBMC), 1983, Scheduled Monument Report on SAM 10436 (Field Monument Warden Report). SSA4867.


<11> Department of the Environment (DoE), 1985-Jun-05, 7th List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest, p31, 14/62 (List of Buildings). SSA756.


<12> Clark G T, 1882, Medieval Military Architecture in England, p402-409 (The Castle of Clun) (Monograph). SSA1072.


<13> Clark-Maxwell W G, 1909, A Short History of the Town and Neighbourhood of Clun, p6 (Monograph). SSA4858.


<14> Eyton R W, 1854/ 1860, Antiquities of Shropshire (Volume 2), p232 (Monograph). SSA2432.


<15> Eyton R W, 1887, The Castles of Shropshire, p26-27 (Article in serial). SSA242.


<16> Anon, 1932-Jan-29, Article in Shrewsbury Chronicle (Newspaper article). SSA4857.


<17> Pevsner Nikolaus, 1958, Buildings of England (Shropshire), p109 (Monograph). SSA110.


<18> Teare M, 1986, Site History of Castle Cottage Garden, adjoining Clun Castle to E - SO 2995 8083 (TEXT). SSA4855.


<19> Musson Chris R, 1990-Jul-20, CPAT 90/MB/0946 to 0950 (5 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA17218.


<20> Musson Chris R, 1990-Jul-20, CPAT 90/C/0291 to 0292 (2 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA18746.


<21> Burrow Ian, 1976-Nov/Dec, Clun Castle (Photograph). SSA4863.


<22> Musson Chris R, 1985-Jul-23, CPAT 85/16/0019 to 0021 (3 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA19810.


<23> Anon, Oblique View (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA19811.


<24> Anon, 1987, Clun Castle (Photograph). SSA4866.


<25> Anon, 1978, Clun Castle (Photograph). SSA4865.


<26> Clwyd Powys Archaeological Trust, Oblique View of Clun Castle (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA19812.


<27> Musson Chris R, 1985-Jul-23, CPAT 85/C/0246 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA19813.


<28> Anon, Photo (Photograph). SSA4862.


<29> Various, 1987, Correspondence, 1987 (Correspondence). SSA4850.


<30> Shropshire County Council, 1985, Consultation Response, 1985 (Planning archive). SSA20116.


<31> Shropshire County Council, 1986, Consultation Response, 1986 (Planning archive). SSA20117.


<32> Shropshire County Council, 1985, Consultation Response, 1985 (Planning archive). SSA20118.


<33> Shropshire County Council, 1990, Consultation Response, 1990 (Planning archive). SSA20119.


<34> Shropshire County Council, 1991, Consultation Response, 1991 (Planning archive). SSA20120.


<35> Morriss Richard K, 1993, Notes for the Visit by the Shropshire Historical and Archaeological Society (TEXT). SSA4854.


<36> Morriss Richard K, 1993, Clun Castle Clun, Shropshire - An Interim Report (Field survey report). SSA4853.


<36a> Morriss Richard K, 1993, Clun Castle Clun, Shropshire - An Interim Report (draft) (Field survey report). SSA24477.


<37> Morriss Richard K, 1990, Clun Castle, Shropshire: an outline history (Deskbased survey report). SSA4852.


<38> Appleton-Fox Nic, 1992, Clun Castle - Watching Brief on minor excavations (Watching brief report). SSA4851.


<39> Williams R, 1993, Clun Castle - Watching Brief on minor excavations for display panels (Watching brief report). SSA4856.


<40> Musson Chris R, 1986-Jul-12, CPAT 86/MB/0693 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA18747.


<41> Horton Wendy B, 1990/ 1991, MPP Evaluation File, Tower Keep Castles (TEXT). SSA20084.


<42> Horton Wendy B, 1990/ 1991, MPP Evaluation File, Motte and Bailey Castles (TEXT). SSA20084.


<43> English Heritage, 1995, Scheduling Papers (Revised Scheduling, 09/10/1995) (Scheduled Monument notification). SSA4864.


<44> Shropshire County Council, 1993, Consultation Response, 1993 (Planning archive). SSA20121.


<45> Rowley R T, 1986, The Landscape of the Welsh Marches (Monograph). SSA1692.


<46> Adnitt H W (ed), 1881, The "Itinerary'' of John Leland (Article in serial). SSA10743.


<47> Jones H C, 1931/ 1934, Clun in the Middle Ages (Article in serial). SSA11508.


<48> Anon, 1888, Church of St George, Clun, Clun Castle, & Clun Hospital in Annual Excursion, pxvii (Article in serial). SSA11498.


<49> Buteux Victoria & Dalwood Hal, 1993/ 1996, CMHTS SMR Records Shropshire: Burford to Clun, Cluun 1198 (Record form). SSA19966.


<50> Buteux Victoria et al, 1996, Archaeological Assessment of Clun, Shropshire (CMHTS) (Historic landscape survey report). SSA12069.


<51> Anon, 1867, Meeting at Craven Arms for Clun, p.64 (Article in serial). SSA11500.


<52> Renfrey P M, 1994, Clun Castle 1066 to 1282 (Monograph). SSA11511.


<53> Renfrey P M, 1994, Five Castles in Clun Lordship (Article in serial). SSA11512.


<54> Musson Chris R, 1996-Jul-24, CPAT 96/MB/0313 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21552.


<55> Musson Chris R, 2001-Jul-26, CPAT 01/MB/0114 to 0115 (2 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21706.


<56> Musson Chris R, 2002-Jul-29, CPAT 02/MB/2023 to 2026 (4 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21720.


<57> Musson Chris R, 2003-Jun-21, CPAT 03/MB/0006 to 0007 (2 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21727.


<58> Musson Chris R, 2003-Jun-21, CPAT 03/MB/0008 to 0010 (3 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21728.


<59> Musson Chris R, 2003, CPAT 03/MB/0072 to 0076 (5 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21758.


<60> Musson Chris R, 2003-Aug-30, CPAT 03/CP/0712 to 0715 (4 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21783.


<61> Musson Chris R, 2003-Jun-21, CPAT 03/CP/0103 to 0106 (4 photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA21810.


<62> Watson Michael D, 2002, Shropshire An Archaeological Guide, p55-56 (Monograph). SSA22535.


<63> Hannaford Hugh R, 2008, Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire: watching brief (Watching brief report). SSA23086.


<64> Shropshire Council, 2008-Jul-1, SA0805_001 to SA0805_002 (2 photos) Flight: 08_SA_05 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA25642.


<65> Shropshire Council, 2009-Jan-6, SA0901_184 to SA0901_191 (8 photos) Flight: 09_SA_01 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA25873.


<66> Shropshire Council, 2009-Mar-20, SA0906_33 to SA0906_38 (6 photos) Flight: 09_SA_06 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA26085.


<67> Shropshire Council, 2011-Jun-16, SA1102_067 to SA1102_071 (5 photos) Flight: 11_SA_02 (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA26700.


<68> Newman J & Pevsner N, 2006, Buildings of England: Shropshire, P222 (Monograph). SSA23518.


<69> Shoesmith Ron, 1990, Clun Castle, Shropshire: recording & excavation works 1990: an interim report (Deskbased survey report). SSA27396.


<70> Musson Chris R, 1999-Mar-14, CPAT 99/C/0420 to 99/C/0422 (3 Photos) (Oblique aerial photograph). SSA27634.


<71> Oman, 1926, Castles, p141-143 inc photo (Monograph). SSA802.


<72> Pikes P J and Shoesmith R, 2016, Clun Castle Digital Archive (Project archive). SSA29129.


<73> Craddock-Bennett L, Morriss R K, Boucher A and Smith H, 2012, Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire: Conservation Plan (Management report). SSA29131.


<74> Summerson H, 1993, Documentary sources for the history of Clun Castle (Deskbased survey report). SSA29162.


<75> Stackhouse-Acton F (Mrs), 1865-1869, Castles and Old Mansions of Shropshire, pp.12-13 (Monograph). SSA675.


<76> Pearson W, 1824, Views of the Antiquities of Salop, pp.81-82; Plate XVII (Monograph). SSA4413.


<77> Mercer Eric, 2003, English Architecture to 1900: The Shropshire Experience, pp.93, 94 (Monograph). SSA23161.

Sources

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Date Last Edited:Jul 16 2018 1:39PM