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The Historic Environment Record is the primary index about the physical remains of past human activity in the unitary authority of West Berkshire. Not all records are published on the Heritage Gateway. Please read the important guidance on the use of the West Berkshire HER data.



HER Number MWB3337
Record Type Monument
Name HAMSTEAD MARSHALL DEER PARK

Grid Reference SU 424 661
Map Sheet SU46NW
Parish Hamstead Marshall, West Berkshire
Map:Show location on Streetmap

Summary

Part of Registered Park GD 1504. HAMSTEAD MARSHALL PARK FIRST MENTIONED IN A GRANT OF 20 DOES TO WILLIAM MARSHALL IN 1229. FROM THEN ON IT IS RECORDED AS A DEER PARK UNTIL RECENT TIMES. SECTIONS OF PARK PALE REMAIN EXTANT- OS FIELD VISIT 1963; APS 1969.

Other Statuses and Cross-References

  • Berkshire SMR No. (pre 2000): 01342.02.000
  • National Monuments Record No.: SU 46 NW 15

Monument Type(s):

  • DEER PARK (Medieval to Late 19th century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)

Full Description

This is one element of the Grade II Registered Park of Hamstead Marshall, GD1504, the other two elements being the remains of the 17th century mansion gardens, and the 19th century gardens of Hamstead Lodge <1>. Several stretches of the earthworks of the park pale (MWB3338) are scheduled. The Registered Park description <1> suggests that the deer park and fishponds date from at least the early 13th century.

The deer park was first described in 1229, when the King granted William Marshall 20 does from Clarendon Forest with which to establish a herd <2><3>. There were various periods of change and disuse, with the Crown obtaining control of the manor and park in 1341, and adding a stud farm in 1347. Stokes notes that in 1346 William Montague, lord of Hamstead Marshall, was recorded as having emparked over 300 acres which were formerly ploughed and tilled, and that this expansion of the hunting grounds must have been unpopular with the farming villagers <4>. Cardinal Wolsey's proclamation against 'ingrossing of farms' led to commissioners recording that another100 acres of Hamstead Park had been enclosed, although the lord of the manor at that time was Catherine of Aragon <4>.

The deer park functioned until at least 1574 <6>, and deer were recorded wild in the area until well into the 20th century. The eastern parish boundary of Hamstead Marshall followed the line of the park pale, running close to the current mansion, although this administrative boundary was redrawn in the 20th century. The area of the park, however, had expanded into the adjacent Enborne parish.

The park contains many ancient pollarded trees, and seems to have been planted with a series of avenues, possibly originating from the 17th century, but seen in 18th century maps <7><8>. These were largely aligned on the hunting lodge in the centre, converted to a house and now called Hamstead Park. It is suggested that Lancelot Brown may have advised Lord Craven on the layout of the park, as he was working at the adjacent Benham Park, also owned by the Cravens <9>. Many of the avenues have disappeared in the course of the 20th century, although work recording the surviving trees has helped to map out their periods of planting <10>.

The GIS point is indicative of the centre point of the deer park. A field visit in November 2006 suggested that there are many surviving earthwork banks in Hamstead Park which might have formed elements of the pale at different periods in its existence.

Sources and further reading

<01>Historic England (previously English Heritage). 1987. Register of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England. Hamstead Marshall Park. [Unpublished document / SWB12616]
<02>Page and Ditchfield (eds). 1924. Victoria County History (VCH) Berks IV 1924. Vol 4. P181-2. [Monograph / SWB10281]
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/berks/vol4 (Accessed 24/09/2015)
<03>Berkshire Archaeological Society. 1979-80. Berkshire Archaeological Journal 1979-80 70. 70. In ADS Journals. 10.5284/1000017. p67-79 The Medieval Parks of Berkshire by J M Catherly and L M Cantor. [Article in serial / SWB6837]
http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/berks_bas_2007/journal.cfm?volume=70 (Accessed 07/09/2016)
<04a>Stokes, P. 1996. Craven Country - The story of Hamstead Marshall. p12-13. [Monograph / SWB14044]
<04a>Stokes, P. 2000?. Hamstead Marshall - Gazetteer. http://www.hamsteadmarshall.net/index.htm. [Website / SWB148950]
http://www.hamsteadmarshall.net/gazetteer.pdf (Accessed 23/01/2019)
<05>Crawford, O G S. 1953. Archaeology in the Field. p191-2, 194, Fig 32. [Monograph / SWB7827]
<06>1574. Saxton's map of Berkshire. [Map / SWB14204]
http://www.hungerfordvirtualmuseum.co.uk/Archives/Maps_and_Charts/1636_Berkshire_Saxton.jpg (Accessed 19/05/2014 - NB this map is dated 1636)
<07>Rocque, J. 1761. Rocque's Map of Berkshire. 1:35,000 (approx). [Map / SWB7242]
https://www.rct.uk/collection/search/3/collection/700042/rocques-map-of-berkshire (Accessed 20/07/2020)
<08>1775. A Map of the Manor of Hamstead Marshall, Holt, etc. [Map / SWB146724]
<09>Lambert, D. 1996. Hamstead Marshall Landscape Report. [Unpublished document / SWB146725]
<10>Babtie. 1995. Hamstead Park Historic Tree Survey and Management Plan. [Unpublished document / SWB146846]
<11>RCHME. Berkshire - National Mapping Programme. Carolyn Dyer/27-NOV-1996/RCHME: Berkshire NMP. [Unpublished document / SWB146801]
<12>Ditchfield and Page (eds). 1907. Victoria County History (VCH) Berks II 1907. Vol 2. p352. [Monograph / SWB11244]
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/berks/vol2 (Accessed 24/09/2015)

Related Monuments

MWB3338HAMSTEAD PARK PALE (Monument)
MWB22050Linear boundary earthwork, running from north of The Dower House in Hamstead Park to the river Kennet (Monument)
MWB22051Linear earthwork field boundary running southwest from Wise's Wood in Hamstead Park (Monument)
MWB22049Linear earthworks on east side of Hamstead Park, partly a boundary with Enborne Copse (Monument)
MWB3332HAMSTEAD PARK - General record (Landscape)
MWB15773Hamstead Park (Park) (Landscape)

Associated Excavations and Fieldwork

EWB885Berkshire - National Mapping Programme (Ref: 1064614)
EWB912Hamstead Park Historic Tree Survey and Management Plan
EWB1677Hamstead Park Revised Parkland Plan