HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Historic England research records Result
Historic England research recordsPrintable version | About Historic England research records

Historic England Research Records

Newcastle Upon Tyne Castle

Hob Uid: 1007169
Location :
Newcastle upon Tyne
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NZ2504063870
Summary : A motte and bailey castle built in 1080, the buried remains of which are thought to survive beneath the later stone castle. The square keep (NZ26SE173) and curtain wall were built 1168-1178 during the reign of Henry II. The barbican and the Black Gate, were added during the mid 13th century. The castle became obsolete when the town walls were built in the late 13th century. The keep was restored in 1848. Scheduled.
More information : NZ 2504 6387: The Castle on site of Pons Aelius Roman Fort (NR) (1)

Castle (remains of) Keep, curtain walls, south postern - built 1172-77. Black Gate built in 1247. The Heron Pit (13th century prison). (2)

Remains in good condition. Excavations have revealed the curtain wall to the SW of the South Postern. See photographs. (3)

NZ 250 638: Newcastle upon Tyne Castle, scheduled. (4)

The first castle was built in 1080 on the site of the Roman fort of Pons Aelius; only a spread of clay and the remains of a building survive from this phase of the castle's history. It was refortified from 1168 to 1178; under Henry II the square keep, North Gate and subsequent to this building the curtain walls were built. A barbican, the Black Gate, and the Heron Pit, the prison, were built under Henry III. When the town walls were built in the late 13th century, the castle gradually became obsolescent and began to decay. However the castle was bought by the Newcastle Corporation in 1809 and during the 19th century much restoration was carried out. (5)

The Black Gate - Gatehouse of the castle, now a museum and private library. Mid-13th century, early 17th century alterations and restored in 1883 for the Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle. Grade 1.

The barbican walls between north gate of the castle and Black Gate. Barbican, mid-13th century. Grade 1. Heron Pit prison, drawbridge pit and other under-buildings in the barbican. Mid-13th and 17th century. Medieval prison and civil war defensive earthworks. Grade 1.

Castle keep, built 1168-78, roof and battlements added in circa 1811 by Newcastle Corporation. Restored in 1848 for the Society of Antiquaries Newcastle. A square tower of three floors. Grade 1(seeNZ26SE173 for details). (6)

Listed by Cathcart King. (7)

Now forms part of a single scheduled area along with records NZ 26 SW 19,and 173. (8)

The castle was founded by Robert, son of the Conqueror, in 1080. Control passed to the earl of Northumberland, and was regained by the Crown by force in 1095. During the earlier part of Stephen's reign it was taken by King David of Scotland, and regained by the crown in 1157 in accordance with the Treaty of Chester. As an important frontier fortress it was rapidly rebuilt in stone and the defences improved. Successive Kings repaired and altered the castle, and especially when Anglo-Scottish Wars broke out. (9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 1:1250 1980
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : (W H Knowles) 1926
Page(s) : Jan-51
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 2
Source Number : 8
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : Scheduling Revised 06-DEC-2002
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 745-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 DS JAN-1968
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : County list of Scheduled Monuments : March 1994
Source details : Tyne and Wear
Page(s) : 4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Northumberland
Source details :
Page(s) : 343-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1992
Source Number : 6
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : District of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear: 30 March 1987
Page(s) : 52-3
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6a
Source : The excavation of a 17th century pit at the Black Gate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1975
Source details :
Page(s) : 153-181
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 13
Source Number : 6b
Source : An excavation in the Castle ditch, Newcastle upon Tyne 1974-6
Source details :
Page(s) : 75-250
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 9
Source Number : 6c
Source : Chateau Gaillard, 9-10. Actes des colloques internationaux tenus a Basel (1978) et a Durham (1980)
Source details : (B Harbottle)
Page(s) : 407-18
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 338-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 2

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1080
Monument End Date : 1080
Monument Start Date : 1080
Monument Type : Motte, Bailey
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built 1168-1178
Monument End Date : 1178
Monument Start Date : 1168
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : C13 alterations
Monument End Date : 1299
Monument Start Date : 1200
Monument Type : Castle, Curtain Wall, Gatehouse, Great Hall, Keep
Evidence : Documentary Evidence

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : TW 20
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 32753
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NZ 26 SE 64
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 24920
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 955064
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1157585
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1157573
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1157577
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1157591
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, THE HERON PIT, BLACK GATE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1905-01-01
End Date : 1905-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE KEEP, CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1920-01-01
End Date : 1920-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH POSTERN (WEST OF), CASTLE SQUARE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1928-01-01
End Date : 1928-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH CURTAIN, CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1958-01-01
End Date : 1962-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE CASTLE, SOUTH CURTAIN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1966-01-01
End Date : 1966-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NZ 26 SE 64
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1968-01-01
Associated Activities : Primary, SOUTH CURTAIN OF CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1970-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1976-01-01
End Date : 1983-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, GARRISON ROOM, NEWCASTLE CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1981-01-01
End Date : 1981-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1989-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE BLACK GATE/THE CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, NORTH FACE, CASTLE KEEP
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE KEEP, NEWCASTLE
Activity type : MANAGEMENT SURVEY
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GARTH WATER MAIN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE ICE HOUSE, THE KEEP, CASTLE GARTH
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2017-01-01
End Date : 2017-12-31