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Historic England Research Records

Rose Castle

Hob Uid: 10509
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Dalston
Grid Ref : NY3711946217
Summary : Medieval castle, the residence of the Bishop of Carlisle. Built on the site of an earlier castle of probable late 13th century date with licences to crenellate in 1336 and 1355. A quadrangular castle. The Strickland Tower was built circa 1400 to 1419, rebuilt in 1488 and 1522-4. It was partly destroyed during the Civil War and was repaired by William Heveningham as a private house 1653-5, with alterations of 1673-5. Further later alterations. Built of red sandstone.
More information : [Centred NY 371 462] ROSE CASTLE [G.T.]. (1)

Rose Castle, a Bishop's Palace, is situated on the site of an early motte and bailey. The Pele tower built originally at the end of the 13th century, but rebuilt in the 15th century, forms the kernel of the buildings. In 1336 licence to crenellate was granted and the earlier stone buildings are probably of this period. The Castle was fired and parts totally demolished c.1648. Later restorations took place under various Bishops. The bailey is traceable to the east. (2-4)

The pele and palace buildings are in good condition. They are flanked on the east side by a wide ornamental 'moat' the counterscarp of which probably represents the limits of the original bailey. Published survey (25") revised. (5)

(NY 37104617) Rose Castle Chapel, rebuilt by William Thackeray between 1673-75. Detailed account and illustrations. (6)

(NY 37104617) Rose Castle (NR). (7)

Castle, residence of the Bishop of Carlisle. Built on the site of an earlier castle: probably late C13 with licences to crenellate 1336 and 1355: Strickland Tower c1400-1419: 1488 tower for Bishop Bell: 1522-4 tower for Bishop Kite: partly destroyed during the Civil War and repaired by William Heveningham as a private house 1653-5: alterations of 1673-5 for Bishop Rainbow by William Thackery: alterations for Bishop Smith by Thomas Machell: alterations for Bishop Lyttelton 1762-9: extensive alterations and additions for Bishop Percy by Thomas Rickman 1828-31: alterations dated 1955. Chapel:1489 for Bishop Bell, altered 1660-63 for Bishop Sterne, altered 1673-5 for Bishop Rainbow by William Thackery and further alterations for Bishop Percy, as above. Large blocks of red sandstone on chamfered plinths; string courses and battlemented parapets; slate and lead roofs; tall C19 candlestick chimney stacks. Four 3-storey towers, hall and chapel in L-shape, forming 2 sides of an originally quadrangular shaped castle. Entrance facade: 3-storey entrance tower of 2-bays has pointed entrance and 2-light Gothic windows. Similar lower 2 bays to right are also by Rickman. Remains of C14 inner curtian wall to left now forms rear wall of chapel. Bell's Tower to left Strickland's Tower to extreme left attached by lowered inner curtain wall. Garden facade in L-shape: right is the chapel, with 2-light windows, larger on upper floor, 3-light east window. Broad buttress projecting from east wall supports C19 open Gothic bellcote. Strickland's Tower to extreme right has external stone steps to first floor entrance. Projecting circular stair turret from first floor continues above parapet. To left: hall with stone mullioned Gothic windows. End wall to left was altered in 1955 with 2-light stone mullioned windows in keeping with the building, dated over entrance. Rear facade: 3-storey Kite's Tower has blocked ground floor entrance and 2-light stone-mullioned windows. Percy's Tower and similar extension to left are by Rickman. See J. Wilson. Rose Castle, 1912; J.F. Curwen, Castles & Towers of Cumberland & Westmorland, 1913, pp227-234 Transactions Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, old series, ii, pp156-165 and new series, lvi, pp132-141; Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, new series, 27, pp61-76. All other associated buildings are listed separately. Outbuildings are of little interest.

Curtain walls to Rose Castle. Early C14. Large blocks of coursed red sandstone on chamfered plinth to east and south with north-east wall on segmental vaulted arches. Low wall, formerly surrounding Rose Castle but now interrupted by outbuildings in south-west angle, reduced in height in the early C19 with C19 coping. Remains of a watch tower on the north-east wall. Gateway in the wall is listed separately. Has G.V. with Rose Castle.

Gateway and flanking buildings. Early C16 for Bishop Kite, with mid C18 alterations. Large blocks of red sandstone rubble. Gateway through curtain walls, with remains of Water Tower to left and lodge to right. Large segmental arch with C16 carved stone panel, of rose in quatrefoil and corner shields, above. Pedestrian pointed arch to right. Battlemented parapet. Former tower to left has blocked chamfered-surround entrance wich originally gave access to an outer watch tower built over the moat. Wall reduced in height and now gabled. Twin-gabled building to rear is an C18 gardener's storehouse with sandstone slate roofs. Lodge to right is mostly demolished but its outer walls form part of the curtain wall with an angle projection. Probably replaced an earlier drawbridge gatetower referred to in 1479. See, J. Wilson, Rose Castle.

Former Dovecote. Dated 1700 over entrance. Large blocks of coursed red sandstone (probably from part of the medieval castle) on squared plinth with flush quoins, gable string course; sandstone slate roof with coped gables and kneelers. Small, almost square, 1 1/2 storeys. Chamfered-surround entrance in gable wall, with dated lintel. Small oculi above. Small square opening in opposite gable. Interior has its complete boulins on 3 sides. See Transactions Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, old series, ix, p425. Mention of a dovecote in a parliamentary survey of 1649 may indicate that the building is earlier than the date. Other references refer to the dovecote as having been a watch tower. Has G.V. with Rose Castle. (8)

Listed by Cathcart King as a quadrangular castle. (9)

Listed with plan and illustration. (10)

The moat described by authority 5 is visible as earthworks o historical air photos and on lidar imagery. It can be traced around the north, east and south sides of the castle. It is not clear if a depression to the west is also a remnant of this moat or a small fish pond. (11-12)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" (Prov) 1957
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (W G Collingwood)
Page(s) : 240
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 23 - 1923
Source Number : 11
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF/58/1572 F21 2 22-SEP-1954
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : Light detection and ranging (lidar) airborne survey
Source details : LIDAR NY3746 Environment Agency 2M DSM XX-XXX-XXXX
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (J Rogan & E Birley)
Page(s) : 132-41
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 56 - 1956
Source Number : 4
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details :
Page(s) : 451-2
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 39 - 1882
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 17-NOV-69
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society
Source details : (B Tyson)
Page(s) : 61-74
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 27 - 1983
Source Number : 7
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 1:2500 1972
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : DOE (HHR) City of Carlisle Cumbr Sept 1984 32-33
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 90
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Jan-83
Source Number : 10
Source : The medieval fortified buildings of Cumbria : an illustrated gazetteer and research guide
Source details :
Page(s) : 216-7
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : vol.29

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : license to crenellate
Monument End Date : 1355
Monument Start Date : 1336
Monument Type : Motte And Bailey, Bishops Palace, Pele Tower, Curtain Wall, Quadrangular Castle
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : tower built
Monument End Date : 1419
Monument Start Date : 1400
Monument Type : Tower
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 1489
Monument Start Date : 1489
Monument Type : Private Chapel
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Post Medieval
Monument End Date : 1901
Monument Start Date : 1540
Monument Type : Tower, House, Dovecote, Gatehouse
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 78287
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 78286
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 78288
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 78289
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 30031
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 78285
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cumbria)
External Cross Reference Number : 697
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 34 NE 3
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1596954
Relationship type : Is referred to by

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 34 NE 3
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1969-11-17
End Date : 1969-11-17
Associated Activities : Primary, ROSE CASTLE, DALSTON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1994-01-01
End Date : 1994-12-31