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Historic England Research Records

Royal Earlswood Hospital

Hob Uid: 1062954
Location :
Surrey
Reigate And Banstead
Reigate
Grid Ref : TQ2810448662
Summary : The former Royal Earlswood Hospital, which was also known as the Royal Earlswood Asylum, was built in 1853 and designed by the architect W.B Moffatt. The building is an extended, symmetrical, Jacobean-style building with a central tower. It is built of red brick with Bath stone dressings and some Reigate stone to the rear elevation; the internal courts are entirely faced in stock brick. There is some evidence that the building was originally clad in Reigate stone which was replaced circa 1855. This was the first asylum to cater specifically for people with learning difficulties, it was a charitable foundation paid for by the London Livery companies. Rev Dr Andrew Reed, the founder of the hospital, believed that people with learning difficulties could be trained by careful teaching to lead a relatively normal life in the outside world, working and caring for themselves. The building of the Royal Earlswood Asylum was entirely financed by public subscription and Queen Victoria subscribed 250 guineas in the name of the Prince of Wales. Prince Albert had a special interest in the hospital and he laid the foundation stone of the building. The hospital opened in 1855 and in 1862 Queen Victoria conferred a Royal Charter on it. In 1958 the hospital, which had previously been a charitable trust, was absorbed into the National Health Service (NHS). The hospital closed in 1997 due to a government scheme to integrate people with psychiatric problems into the community. The buildings have since been converted into apartments in a development called Royal Earlswood Park.
More information : The former Royal Earlswood Hospital, which was also known as the Royal Earlswood Asylum, was built in 1853 and designed by the architect W.B Moffatt in Redhill in Surrey. The building is an extended, symmetrical, Jacobean-style building with a central tower. It is built of red brick with Bath stone dressings and some Reigate stone to the rear elevation; the internal courts are entirely faced in stock brick. There is some evidence that the building was originally clad in Reigate stone which was replaced circa 1855. This was the first asylum to cater specifically for people with learning difficulties, it was a charitable foundation paid for by the London Livery companies. Rev Dr Andrew Reed, the founder of the hospital, believed that people with learning difficulties could be trained by careful teaching to lead a relatively normal life in the outside world, working and caring for themselves.
A former hospital was founded in 1848 in Park House in Highgate, London. However this building grew too small to meet the needs of the institution and the later building in Redhill, Surrey was built. The building of the Royal Earlswood Asylum was entirely financed by public subscription and Queen Victoria subscribed 250 guineas in the name of the Prince of Wales. Prince Albert had a special interest in the hospital and he laid the foundation stone of the building. The hospital opened in 1855 and in 1862 Queen Victoria conferred a Royal Charter on it.
The medical superintendant of the hospital from 1855-1868 was John Langdon-Down, after whom Down syndrome is named. Patients were taught carpentry, printing and domestic and farm duties.
Some of the patients of note at the hospital include Katherine and Nerissa Bowes-Lyon, the nieces of the Queen Mother and first cousins of HM Queen Elizabeth II.
In 1958 the hospital, which had previously been a charitable trust, was absorbed into the National Health Service (NHS).
The hospital closed in 1997 due to a government scheme to integrate people with psychiatric problems into the community. The buildings have since been converted into apartments in a development called Royal Earlswood Park. (1)

More information on the hospital can be found here. (2)

The Royal Earlswood Hospital Original Building is a grade II listed building. For further details on the designation see the statutory data. (3)

At the time of amending this record in 2012, access to information on the designation noted in source 4 above is available via the National Heritage List for England. (4)

The National Grid Reference for the building is: TQ280486 (5)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : World Wide Web page
Source details : Exploring Surrey's Past, [Accessed 26-APR-2012]
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Source Number : 2
Source : Mental Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum 1847-1901
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Source Number : 3
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : Reigate and Banstead, 05-Jun-1990
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Source Number : 4
Source : World Wide Web page
Source details : The National Heritage List for England, Royal Earlswood Hospital, [Accessed 26-APR-2012]
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Source Number : 5
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 1:1250, 2008
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Built 1853-5
Monument End Date : 1855
Monument Start Date : 1853
Monument Type : Learning Disability Hospital, School
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Late 20th Century
Display Date : Converted to apartments
Monument End Date : 1997
Monument Start Date : 1997
Monument Type : House
Evidence : Extant Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 101289
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 440516
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1241446
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : TQ 24 NE 29
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1313501
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1313504
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : RCHME: HOSPITALS PROJECT
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1991-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : ENGLISH HERITAGE: DISABILITY IN TIME AND PLACE
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31