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Historic England Research Records

Aballava Roman Fort

Hob Uid: 10705
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Burgh By Sands
Grid Ref : NY3280059100
Summary : The site of a Roman fort (Burgh II) on Hadrian's Wall. It appears to have been occupied from the mid-2nd to the late 4th century AD, and was probably the successor to Burgh I to the south. The excavated parts of the site were robbed. There is no visible trace of this fort except for a distinct drop in the road over the western defences, near the crossroads.
More information : (Area NY 328 591) Aballava (R) Roman Fort (R) (site of) (NAT) (1)

The Roman fort of Aballava, at Burgh-by-Sands, was partly investigated by Collingwood in 1922. Only the northern part of the east side was excavated; barrack buildings were found, almost entirely robbed. The excavations were continued southwards to the road where the robbed foundations of the east gate were found (at NY 3290 5908) (4). From pottery finds, the fort appears to have been occupied from the mid second, to the mid/late fourth century. By calculation Turret 71b should underlie the fort. (2-4)

No visible remains. (5)

Approximate site of Turret 71b, NY 3289 5914. (6)

Name 'ABALLAVA' accepted for 4th edition OS Roman Britain map. (7)

(NY 329 590). The position of the Military Way, which survived as an agger 8m wide with a kerb on the north side, suggests that the fort measures circa 167-77m north-south, rather more than previously thought. (8)

ABALLAVA - The Roman fort at Burgh-by-Sands, Cumbria. (9)

There is no visible trace of this fort except for a distinct drop in the road over the western defences, near the crossroads. (10)

(Turret 71B is now recorded separately as NY 35 NW 124)
Geophysical survey in the north part of the fort was undertaken in 1992. (11)

Scheduled (12)

A project to publish the air survey and excavations carried out by the late G D B Jones in and around Burgh-by-Sands in 1977-82 has been carried out. This work has clarified the complex sequence at the fort and surrounding areas. Burgh II straddles the original line of the Turf Wall, and is probably of a late-Hadrianic or later date, having been built when the Wall was rebuilt in stone around 160 AD. (13)

Various paintings depicting the area around Burgh-by-Sands from the James Irwin Coates Archive (dated 1877-1896). (14)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (15)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" 1957
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Source Number : 2
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 208-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Linford, N, 1992. Geophysical Survey: Burgh-by-Sands, Cumbria. Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 88/92
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Source Number : 12
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 19-Mar-98
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Source Number : 13
Source : Hadrian's Wall 1999-2009
Source details :
Page(s) : 151-4
Figs. : 46
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 14
Source : Hadrian's Wall: archaeological research by English Heritage 1976-2000
Source details :
Page(s) : 45-8
Figs. : 160-166
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 15
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (R G Collingwood)
Page(s) : 03-Dec
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 23, 1923
Source Number : 4
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : Inf: I A Richmond
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Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 20-NOV-69
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Source Number : 6
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : Letter and plan (S H Bartle, 13.3.72)
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 7
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ordnance Survey Map of Roman Britain, 4th edition, 1978
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details : (F O Grew)
Page(s) : 325
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 12, 1981
Source Number : 9
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 238
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Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Mark Bowden/04-JUL-1990/RCHME: Hadrian's Wall Project
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 399
Monument Start Date : 150
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 28
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 3259/4
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 26116
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 35 NW 10
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 10779
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 10767
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1478406
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 10758
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1571683
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1007791
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : CHURCHYARD, BURGH BY SANDS, (ABALLAVA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1921-01-01
End Date : 1921-12-31
Associated Activities : BURGH BY SANDS, (ABALLAVA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1922-01-01
End Date : 1922-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 35 NW 10
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1969-11-20
End Date : 1969-11-20
Associated Activities : BURGH-BY-SANDS, FIELD 0120
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1976-01-01
End Date : 1976-12-31
Associated Activities : RCHME: HADRIAN'S WALL PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1993-08-01
Associated Activities : BURGH BY SANDS
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1992-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : BURGH-BY-SANDS, GRAVEYARD
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND REAR OF 'AMBERFIELD'
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT AMBERFIELD
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2001-01-01
End Date : 2001-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT BURGH EAST
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT AMBERFIELD
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT THE VILLAGE HALL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT PADDOCK HALL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : BURGH-BY-SANDS VILLAGE HALL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : WORMANBY FARM/ST. MICHAEL'S GRAVEYARD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT NORTH END
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31