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Historic England Research Records

Hereford Castle

Hob Uid: 110142
Location :
County of Herefordshire
Hereford
Grid Ref : SO5120039600
Summary : Hereford Castle - Motte (demolished) and bailey (remains of). The post conquest castle consisted of a motte, now entirely destroyed, and a kite shaped bailey to the east, surrounded on three sides by a moat and on the fourth by the River Wye. The rampart on the north of the bailey rises 21.5 feet above the water level of the castle-pool and beyond the moat to the east the ground outside is 29 feet below the top of the rampart. The curtain wall and buildings within the castle were mainly 13th century although part of the wall is mentioned as being in need of repair in the 12th century. It was much damaged in the civil war and what remained was mostly demolished in 1660. Scheduled.
More information : (SO 511395) Castle (NR) (remains of) (NAT) Castle Poole (NR). (1)

There are grounds for thinking that there was already a castle in Hereford in 1066. The post-Conquest castle consisted of a motte, now entirely destroyed, and a Kite-shaped bailey to the east, surrounded on three sides by a moat and on the fourth by the R Wye. Leland described the castle as having being one of the fairest, strongest and largest in England, the walls `highe and stronge and full of great towres'. The bailey with its enclosing banks is now a recreation ground; the rampart on the north rises 21.5 ft above the water level of the castle-pool (part of the moat still filled with water) and beyond the moat to the east the ground outside is 29 ft below the top of the rampart. The ditch has been obliterated by a modern road on the east and there is only a low rampart on the south towards the river. On the west a slight scarp indicates the position of the ditch between the bailey and the former motte. The curtain wall and buildings within the castle were mainly 13th c although part of the wall is mentioned as being in need of repair in the L 12th c. It was much damaged in the Civil War, and what remained was mostly demolished in 1660. The house at the SW angle of the bailey was long used as the city Bridewell and has been largely reconstructed in modern times, but the north front retains a doorway of c. 1300. (2-3)

SO 512 396. The bailey is as described. Published survey 25" correct. (4)

Listed by Shoesmith and Cathcart King. (5,6)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1964
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 673-7
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1963
Source Number : 3
Source : An inventory of the historical monuments in Herefordshire. Volume I: south-west
Source details :
Page(s) : 126
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1931
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 MHB 22-FEB-71
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : A guide to castles and moated sites in Herefordshire
Source details :
Page(s) : 121-35
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : vol.2
Source Number : 6
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 206
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 11th century
Monument End Date : 1099
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Bailey, Motte
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : built 13th century
Monument End Date : 1299
Monument Start Date : 1200
Monument Type : Castle, Building, Curtain Wall, Angle Tower, Interval Tower
Evidence : Structure, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : destroyed by 1660
Monument End Date : 1660
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Building

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : HE 152
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SO 53 NW 4
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, REDCLIFFE GARDENS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1968-01-01
End Date : 1969-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON SO 53 NW 4
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1971-02-22
End Date : 1971-02-22
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GREEN, RIVER BANK
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GREEN,BOWLING CLUB PAVILION
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, REDCLIFFE GARDENS, CASTLE GREEN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE GROTTO, HEREFORD CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CATHEDRAL PREPARATORY SCHOOL, CASTLE HILL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HEREFORD CASTLE POOL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2005-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HOGGS MOUNT STEPS, CASTLE GREEN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE POOL MOAT, MILL STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HOGG'S MOUNT STEPS, CASTLE GREEN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CASTLE GREEN BOWLING CLUB
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, HEREFORD CASTLE GREEN
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 2009-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, QUAY COTTAGE, 12 QUAY STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2013-12-31