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Historic England Research Records

Voreda Roman Fort

Hob Uid: 11239
Location :
Cumbria
Eden
Hesket
Grid Ref : NY4930038400
Summary : The earthwork remains of Voreda Roman fort at Old Penrith. It was occupied from the 1st to 4th century AD. The vicus appears to have been abandoned in circa 300 AD. A well, steelyard, a complete quern, and coins were found.
More information : NY 493384 VOREDA ROMAN FORT G.S. (1)

The Roman Fort of Voreda now known as Old Penrith or Plumpton Wall is five miles N of Penrith on the modern road to Carlisle. It was occupied from 1st to 4th cent AD. Finds from the site include a number of inscribed stones a steelyard, a complete quern, coins from Hadrian to Tetricus, coarse pottery and Samian ware. A well was discovered in the road 100 yards to the north, and an extensive settlement surrounded the fort. Scheduled. (2-5)

In fair condition. Some of the internal detail of the fort is discernible, but there is no vestige of the vicus.
Published survey (25") revised. (6)


Name 'VOREDA' accepted for 4th edition RB Map. Observation during levelling operations, followed by excavation of an area 50m square south of the fort, revealed vicus buildings described by Horsley but not seen on air photographs. Earliest occupation is attested by groups of pottery of probably Trajanic date. A layer of accumulated soil may indicate that the site was abandoned from circa 120 until vicus buildings were established between 150 and 200. A number of
building plans were recovered, one of which featured a hypocaust,
together with a well. Occupation appears to have ceased by 300.

The ditches and south gate of the fort were partially examined.
The earliest ditch was continuous across the gateway, perhaps
with a bridge. (7)

VOREDA - The Roman fort at Old Penrith, Cumbria. (8)

NY 494385. Hesket. Old Penrith (Voreda), Plumpton Wall listed under Roman remains. Scheduled no. 249. (9)

Some Roman sculptures from Old Penrith are now at Abbotsford
(NT 53 SW 61). (10)

several buildings of the vicus can be seen as parchmarks on aerial photographs taken in July 2013. The buildings are clustered just outside the west gate of the fort, occupying a relatively narow space betwen the fort defences and change in slope where hteground falls away to the River Petteril. (11)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" (Prov 1957)
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Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 177-98
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Vol(s) : N.S. 13 - 1913
Source Number : 10
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : RCAHMS NMR Archive Card
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Source Number : 10a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Photos XS 660-664
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Source Number : 11
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : EHA 28456_016 22-JUL-2013
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Source : Old Penrith [VOREDA]/drawn stones/pencil
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Source : Old Penrith [VOREDA]/pencil 1
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Source : Old Penrith [VOREDA]/N gate/pencil
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Source : Old Penrith [VOREDA]/pencil 2
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Source : Old Penrith [VOREDA]/E gate/pencil
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Source : Old Penrith [VOREDA]/W rampart/profile
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Source Number : 3
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 132-41
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Vol(s) : N.S. 36 - 1936
Source Number : 4
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details :
Page(s) : 166-182
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Vol(s) : N.S. 47 - 1947
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ancient Monuments of England & Wales 1961 30 (MOW)
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Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : First Ordnance Survey field investigator RE 21-JAN-71
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Source Number : 7
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details :
Page(s) : 424-5
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Vol(s) : Sep-78
Source Number : 7a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Britannia Romanum 1732 p111 (J Horsley)
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Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Rivet A L F and Smith C 1979 The Place Names of Roman Britain p508
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Source Number : 9
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : DOE (IAM) Anc Mons in England 1 1978 15
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 300
Monument Start Date : 150
Monument Type : Fort, Vicus, Well
Evidence : Earthwork, Sub Surface Deposit, Find
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 117
Monument Start Date : 98
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find

Components and Objects:
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Fort, Vicus, Well
Object Type : QUERN, STEELYARD, COIN, VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : VESSEL
Object Material : Pottery

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 249a
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 249b
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : AF0763191
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 43 NE 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1031508
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1031541
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1581764
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : OLD PENRITH, (VOREDA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1778-01-01
End Date : 1778-12-31
Associated Activities : OLD PENRITH, (VOREDA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1811-01-01
End Date : 1812-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 43 NE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1971-01-21
End Date : 1971-01-21
Associated Activities : OLD PENRITH (VOREDA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1977-01-01
End Date : 1978-12-31
Associated Activities : EH AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE (NORTH): 2013-14
Activity type : AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE
Start Date : 2013-04-01
End Date : 2014-03-31