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Historic England Research Records

Stanwix Roman Fort

Hob Uid: 11402
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Non Civil Parish
Grid Ref : NY4020057100
Summary : The site of the Roman fort at Stanwix (also known as Petriana), overlying the presumed site of Turret 65b. A watching brief on building work behind the Crown and Thistle Inn within the area of the fort showed that Roman layers had been removed by later levelling. UXELODUNUM identified as the Roman fort at Stanwix, "Petrianis" probably being a copyist's error derived from the name of the fourth century garrison. A minimum sequence for Stanwix fort is postulated: 1. Small timber fort on Turf Wall. 2. Vallum placed to avoid this fort. 3. Possible conversion of primary fort to stone with a re-building of Wall in stone. 4. Fort expanded to north and west to accommodate the ala Petriana. Running south-west to north-east within Stanwix graveyard is a low, spread bank, at best 0.3m high, which generally conforms to the line of the south wall of the fort; the Ordnance Survey depiction is rather exaggerated (RCHME Hadrian's Wall Project NY 4056/9). There is no other visible trace of the fort except for the masonry displayed in the car park of the Cumbria Park hotel (NY 4006 5713) (Hadrian's Wall Project NY 4057/24). From NY 4012 5721 the topography falls away to the north-west suggesting that the fort, in extending north beyond Hadrian's Wall was pushed to the edge of the escarpment (Hadrian's Wall Project NY 4057/29); the fort may also have extended to the south to impinge on the Vallum.
More information : (NY 402 571) Roman Fort (R) (Site of) (NAT) (1)

The Roman Wall-fort of Petriana at Stanwix was investigated by Simpson and Richmond in 1939-40 and the line of the walls established; an angle tower and an interval tower were located. The south rampart is clearly visible in the churchyard. The fort was 580 x 700 feet and would hold a cavalry regiment 1000 strong, which can only have been the ala Petriana. A barrack-like building and a granary have been found under the school yard. Sculptured and inscribed stones (including a dedication set up in AD167, found to the west of the fort in 1931) an altar, coins and pottery etc from the site are mainly in Tullie House and Newcastle Museums. A diversion of the Vallum near the fort site suggests that a slightly smaller Hadrianic turf fort may have preceded its stone successor, not necessarily on the same alignment. By calculation Turret 65B should lie under the fort. (2-4)

All that remains of the fort is the portion of rampart to the south of the church. This has been reduced so much that it is barely discernable.
Published survey 1:1250 revised.
Name 'VXELODVNVM' ? accepted for 4th edition Roman Britain Map. (5)

Excavation to the rear of the Cumbria Park Hotel in 1984 uncovered the remains of a previously unsuspected north curtain wall, rampart and interval tower of the fort. Pottery dates the rampart's construction to the Antonine period. There was a distinct absence of 3rd and 4th century pottery from the site. The presence of 3 detected ditches hinted at the complexity of the construction and 3 or more periods of development. (6)

(Turret 65B is now recorded separately as NY 45 NW 156)

Central Excavation Unit watching brief of building work behind the Crown and Thistle Inn within the area of the fort showed that Roman layers had been removed by later levelling (7a). UXELODUNUM identified as the Roman fort at Stanwix, "Petrianis" probably being a copyist's error derived from the name of the fourth century garrison (7b). A minimum sequence for Stanwix fort is postulated:
1. Small timber fort on Turf Wall.
2. Vallum placed to avoid this fort.
3. Possible conversion of primary fort to stone with a re-building of Wall in stone.
4. Fort expanded to north and west to accommodate the ala Petriana (7c). Running south-west to north-east within Stanwix graveyard is a low, spread bank, at best 0.3m high, which generally conforms to the line of the south wall of the fort; the Ordnance Survey depiction is rather exaggerated (RCHME Hadrian's Wall Project NY 4056/9). There is no other visible trace of the fort except for the masonry displayed in the car park of the Cumbria Park hotel (NY 4006 5713) (Hadrian's Wall Project NY 4057/24). From NY 4012 5721 the topography falls away to the north-west suggesting that the fort, in extending north beyond Hadrian's Wall was pushed to the edge of the escarpment (Hadrian's Wall Project NY 4057/29); the fort may also have extended to the south to impinge on the Vallum. (7)

Scheduled. (8)

No evidence of the fort was seen on available air photographs. (9)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (10)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 25" 1937
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 205-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 20-Nov-98
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : RCHME/EH/HE Aerial Photographers comment
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Bruce, J C, 1957 Handbook to the Roman Wall
Page(s) : 206-9
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Externally held archive reference
Source details : Catalogue and List of Accessions, Tullie House Museum
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 14-DEC-71
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (Dacre J A et al)
Page(s) : 53-69
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 85, 1985
Source Number : 7
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Donnie Mackay/08-AUG-1990/RCHME: Hadrian's Wall Project
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Centrial Excavation Unit, 1977. Site 56 (unpublished)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7b
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 221, 483
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7c
Source : The eleventh Pilgrimage of Hadrian's Wall, 26 August-1 September 1989
Source details : Caruana, I 'Stanwix'
Page(s) : 30-32
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Hadrianic
Monument End Date : 138
Monument Start Date : 117
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 138
Monument Type : Fort
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 4057/29
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 28
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 4056/9
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 4057/23
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 4057/24
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 28484
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cumbria)
External Cross Reference Number : 488
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 45 NW 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
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Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1031496
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 11458
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 911991
Relationship type : Is referred to by
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Relationship type : General association
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Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1931-01-01
End Date : 1931-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX, (PETRIANA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1939-01-01
End Date : 1940-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 45 NW 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1971-12-14
End Date : 1971-12-14
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX, CROWN & THISTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 1977-01-01
End Date : 1977-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUMBRIA PARK HOTEL, SCOTLAND ROAD, STANWIX, (PETRIANA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1984-01-01
End Date : 1984-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: HADRIAN'S WALL PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1993-08-01
Associated Activities : Primary, PRIMARY SCHOOL SITE, TARRABY LANE, STANWIX
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1990-01-01
End Date : 1990-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARN CLOSE, STANWIX
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, COLLEGE OF ART, TARRABY LANE, STANWIX
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1993-01-01
End Date : 1993-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX ROMAN FORT
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1996-01-01
End Date : 1996-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX PRIMARY SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX PRIMARY SCHOOL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUMBRIA PARK HOTEL, STANWIX
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX PRIMARY SCHOOL
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUMBRIA COLLEGE OF ART AND DESIGN, STANWIX
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 18-22 SCOTLAND ROAD, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUMBRIA INSTITUTE OF ART & DESIGN
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2004-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT STANWIX SCHOOL
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2004-01-01
End Date : 2005-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, B6264 BRAMPTON ROAD
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CUMBRIA PARK HOTEL, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2007-01-01
End Date : 2007-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX PRIMARY SCHOOL
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, THE OLD STABLES, CHURCH PLACE, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, STANWIX NURSERY, CHURCH STREET
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WELLS LANE/KELLS PLACE, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHURCH STREET, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, 1 CLOSE COTTAGE, WELL LANE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT ST. GEORGE'S CRESCENT
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2011-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WATERLOGGED CARLISLE
Activity type : DESK BASED ASSESSMENT
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, CHURCH TERRACE, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2012-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, MULCASTER HOUSE, STANWIX
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT OLD CROFT, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2014-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, UNIVERSITY OF CUMBRIA, BRAMPTON ROAD, STANWIX
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31