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Historic England Research Records

Scaleby Castle

Hob Uid: 11646
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Scaleby
Grid Ref : NY4490062500
Summary : Originally built in the late 13th century with a licence to crenellate granted to Sir Robert de Tylliol in 1307. It was mostly rebuilt in the 15th century and has a late 16th century wing built for Sir Edward Musgrave. Alterations took place in the late 17th century for William Gilpin and it was remodelled about 1838, probably by Thomas Rickman for the Fawcett family. The castle comprises buildings forming a L-shaped plan and includes a 4-storey, single-bay tower house, now in ruins, with a 3-storey, 3-bay great hall adjoining to south and projecting 2-storey open roof polygonal curtain tower, adjoining to the northwest. There is a northwest facing 2-storey gatehouse, with joining high curtain wall, enclosing small courtyard. The south range is at right angles to the great hall and is of 2 periods. The tower house has extremely thick chamfered plinth and chamfered string courses to each floor, chamfered lancet windows. The interior has remains of vaulted lower chamber, with remains of newel staircase in thickness of the wall, all other floors have gone and the walls are in ruins, probably as a result of destruction after the 1648 siege. The curtain tower has 15th century windows on the ground floor and chamfered lancets above;the wall was probably battlemented but is now in ruins. The courtyard wall has an inner gate giving access to tower house. The adjoining gatehouse has a round arch entrance with a recessed pointed arch. The interior has porters' lodges flanking the entrance with a portcullis room above. The great hall has a stepped entrance dated 1965.
More information : (NY 449 625) Castle (GT) (Remains of) Scaleby Castle (TI)
Moat (GT) (1)

The site was probably originally (13thc) surrounded by a square moat, a short section of which may remain "towards the west". A licence to crenellate was granted in 1307. The pele tower, great hall and curtain wall were probably built between the mid-14th and early 15thc. It is not known at what period the circular outer moat was dug. The residence was repaired and remodelled in the late 17thc and several times since.
See plan. Scheduled. (2-3)

Scaleby Castle is generally in good condition apart from the pele tower and forebuildings which are in a semi-ruinous state. (See photographs)
The whole is surrounded by a circular water-filled moat 7.0-8.0m wide. To the west, between the Castle and the moat are traces of a broad shallow ditch 30.0m long and 10.0m wide continuing in the north as a superficial depression, probably the remains of the square moat referred to, but to a large degree it has been mutilated by ornamental gardening.
Published survey (25") earthworks revised. (4)

Scaleby Castle
I
Castle. Probably late C13, licence to crenellate granted to Sir Robertde Tylliol, 1307; mostly rebuilt in C15, with late C16 wing for Sir Edward Musgrave, altered in late C17 for William Gilpin and remodelled about 1838, probably by Thomas Rickman for the Fawcett family. Oldest work is of red sandstone from the nearby Roman Wall; later work of mixed Roman Wall stone and ashlar, with most recent work of red sandstone ashlar; slate roofs, brick and ashlar chimney stacks. L-shaped buildings with angle curtain wall form roughly a square; circular enclosing moat now filled; remaining water-filled outer moat. 4-storey, single-bay tower house, now in ruins, has 3-storey, 3-bay great hall adjoining to south; projecting 2-storey open roof polygonal curtain tower, adjoins to north-west; north-west facing 2-storey gatehouse, with joining high curtain wall, enclosing small courtyard; south range, at right angles to the great hall, is of 2 periods, that to right 3 storeys and attic, 3 bays and later building left of 3 storeys, 2 bays. Tower house has extremely thick chamfered plinth and chamfered string courses to each floor, chamfered lancet windows. Interior has remains of vaulted lower chamber, with remains of newel staircase in thickness of the wall, all other floors gone and walls in ruins, probably as a result of destruction after 1648 siege. Curtain tower has C15 windows to ground floor and chamfered lancets above; wall probably battlemented but now in ruins. Wall to courtyard has inner gate giving access to tower house. Adjoining gatehouse has roundarch entrance with recessed pointed arch. Large angle buttress, with large raised panels above entrance with central recess. Carved stone coat of arms of de Tylliols, to left, and central carved Gilpin arms above entrance. Interior has porters' lodges flanking entrance, with portcullis room above. Great hall has stepped entrance dated 1965. Sash windows with glazing bars and hood mould were added in 1680's; filled slit vents. Entrance from courtyard has pointed arch. Interior had tunnel vaulted lower chamber. South range has large stepped angle buttresses; building to right of 1567-1606 on earlier foundations has sash windows of 1680's and c1838, with above-eaves gabled dormers; projecting 3-storey bay ends in gabled dormer. Circa 1838 building left has mullioned casement windows with glazing bars and hood moulds,that on ground floor left altered to a French window. End wall has C19 mullioned windows with quatrefoil window in gable angle. Coupled battlemented stone chimney stacks. Rear has courtyard entrance dated 1737 with cartouche of Richard Gilpin. Sash windows with glazing bars and C19 mullioned windows have square leaded panes. Birthplace of the Rev William Gilpin and his brother Sawrey Gilpin. (5)

Listed by Cathcart King. Small strong courtyard castle with late 14th century tower and remarkable polygonal barbican flanking the small gatehouse. (6)

Tree cover prevented identification and mapping from air photographs of any evidence for the moat at Scaleby Castle.
In the parkland immediately beyond the moat, an avenue was seen as an earthwork formed by two slight parallel banks, and is separately recorded as NY 46 SW 60. (7)

Listed with illustrations and plan. (8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 25" (undated)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (JF Curwen)
Page(s) : 398-411
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 26, 1926
Source Number : 3
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : Ancient Monuments England and Wales 1965 (MOW)
Page(s) : 32
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 13-MAR-72
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : City of Carlisle, Cumbria 16.1.84
Page(s) : 51-2
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the islands. Volume I : Anglesey - Montgomery
Source details :
Page(s) : 90
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Jan-83
Source Number : 7
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR OS/71237 297 21-MAY-1971
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : The medieval fortified buildings of Cumbria : an illustrated gazetteer and research guide
Source details :
Page(s) : 86-7
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : vol.29

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Findspot
Evidence : Find
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Constructed late C13
Monument End Date : 1299
Monument Start Date : 1267
Monument Type : Castle, Great Hall
Evidence : Ruined Building, Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Medieval
Monument End Date : 1540
Monument Start Date : 1300
Monument Type : Curtain Wall, Tower House, Gatehouse, Moat, Barbican
Evidence : Ruined Building, Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Licence to crenellate in 1307
Monument End Date : 1307
Monument Start Date : 1307
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Rebuilt in C15
Monument End Date : 1499
Monument Start Date : 1400
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Late C16 additions
Monument End Date : 1599
Monument Start Date : 1567
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Late C17 alterations
Monument End Date : 1699
Monument Start Date : 1667
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Additions of 1737
Monument End Date : 1737
Monument Start Date : 1737
Monument Type : Castle, Date Stone
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Remodelled c1838
Monument End Date : 1848
Monument Start Date : 1828
Monument Type : Castle
Evidence : Ruined Building

Components and Objects:
Period : Roman
Component Monument Type : Findspot
Object Type : ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT
Object Material :

Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 32896
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 77959
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cumbria)
External Cross Reference Number : 2905
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 46 SW 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1098960
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1099040
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1099082
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1377971
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1377975
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452398
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452402
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452404
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452405
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452407
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452408
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1452398
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1452402
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1452404
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1452405
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 46 SW 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1972-03-13
End Date : 1972-03-13
Associated Activities : Primary, SCALEBY CASTLE
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2000-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31