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Historic England Research Records

Brougham Castle

Hob Uid: 11985
Location :
Cumbria
Eden
Brougham
Grid Ref : NY5371029000
Summary : A moated castle and keep built circa 1203-28. It was a strategic castle in the wars of the Roses when the resident family, the Lancastrian Cliffords, were in conflict with the Yorkist Neville family for dominance in the north-west of England. It was converted into a country house in the 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford, who also laid out a walled garden to the south of the castle. The castle was partly demolished circa 1691, fell into disrepair and was sold off for building materials in 1714. The castle is situated on a spur jutting into the flood plain of the River Eamont; the river cliff undoubtedly steepened and strengthened, provides a natural defence on the north and part of the west sides, and a moat, double on the south half of the west side, connects the cliff around the other sides to form a complete circuit. The ruins have now been consolidated and the moat was cleaned during the 1930s. The castle is in the care of English heritage
More information : Brougham Castle, centred at NY 5371 2900.

(The OS record for Brougham Castle has been recast below, all sources previously recorded by the OS are included).

(NY 5371 2900) Brougham Castle (NR) (Remains of) (NAT)
(NY 5372 2899) Chap (NR) (shortened from Chapel)
(NY 5360 2900) Maud's Pool (NR).(1a)

The oldest part of Brougham Castle, the keep, was built c.1203-28 in the reign of Henry II; the keep, later heightened, and its gatehouses formed an impregnable fortress as well as a lordly residence. The castle was renovated by Lady Anne Clifford in the 17th century; she died there in 1676, after which the castle was allowed to decay. It was partly demolished in 1691 and any usable materials were sold in 1714. Between the First and Second World Wars the castle was placed under guardianship, repaired and opened to the public; it is now in the care of English Heritage (1b).

Earthworks re-surveyed at 1:2500. In good condition (1c).

(NY 5371 2900) Brougham Castle (NR) (1d).

The south moat of the castle appears to represent the N ditch of the Roman fort (see NY 52 NW 6); when it was cleaned out, it was found to contain mainly 4th century Roman pottery (1e-f).

Brougham Castle scheduled (1g).

Scheduled monument previously Cumbr 335, combined under new title and monument number, Cumbr 241. (1h)

The moated castle, centred at NY 5371 2900, and the adjacent Roman fort were surveyed at 1:500 scale by RCHME in 1990-1. The history of the castle and details of its upstanding fabric have been summarised in the guide book by English Heritage (1b); it remains in their care and open to the public. It is situated on a spur jutting into the flood-plain of the River Eamont; the river cliff undoubtedly steepened and strengthened, provides a natural defence on the N and part of the W sides, and a moat, double on the S half of the W side, connects the cliff around the other sides to form a complete
circuit. The moat was cleaned out in the 1930s by HM Office of Works; on the E and S sides it is between 15m and 18m wide and 3.4m deep increasing to 4m on the outer side at the SW angle. To the W, its depth decreases to 2.8m on the outside and 2.0m on the inside. The outer, supplementary moat to the W descends from the summit of the river cliff, where it is 3.3m deep, onto the flood-plain where it declines in depth.

Three causeways cross the moat. The first on the E side, bounded to the N by the river cliff, provides access to the main gate; it is revetted with a stone retaining wall on the S side, and is now 16m wide. The second in the SW, c.3m wide, is opposite a postern, the third to the S, 3.5m wide, leads from a narrow gate inserted in the curtain wall in the 17th century. The latter causeway provides access into an enclosure S of the castle, now sparsely wooded, which has been identified as a garden mentioned in Lady Anne Clifford's diary of 1676 (for details of garden see NY 52 NW 86) (1i-j).

The chapel (annotated on the OS map of 1957) is an integral part of the castle buildings within the curtain; 'Maud's Pool appears to be part of an old river channel. Full RCHME survey information, including a report, is included in the NMR archive. (1)

Additional reference. (2)

Included in gazetteer by Cathcart King. (3)

Additional reference. (4)

Gazetteer entry with plan and illustrations. (5)

Detailed description of the castle. (6)

Additional reference and photograph. (7)

The May 2011 issue of Heritage Today includes a biography of Lady Anne Clifford, charting the events of her life and the people and places connected with her. The article notes that she transformed Brougham castle, which had earlier been a strategic site i nthe War of the Roses: the Cliffords were supporters of the House of Lancaster and were in competion for dominance of the north-west with the Yorkist Neville family. The castle had been in a state of decay by about 1617. Lady Anne took control over the castle in 1650 and restored the castle. She also had a large walled garden constructed to the south of the castle. (8)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Keith Blood/04-APR-1991/RCHME: Brougham Castle Survey
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Source Number : 1a
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1957
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 1j
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Summerson, H, 1990. Brougham Castle: History, unpublished typescript. English Heritage.
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Source Number : 2
Source : Brougham Castle [Cumbria]
Source details :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 491
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Vol(s) : Feb-83
Source Number : 4
Source : Ordnance Survey guide to castles in Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 166
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Source Number : 5
Source : The medieval fortified buildings of Cumbria : an illustrated gazetteer and research guide
Source details :
Page(s) : 264-5
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Vol(s) : vol.29
Source Number : 6
Source : Brougham Castle, Cumbria : a survey and documentary history
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Vol(s) : 8
Source Number : 7
Source : England's Landscape: The North West
Source details :
Page(s) : 158
Figs. : 9.7
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Source Number : 8
Source : Heritage Today
Source details :
Page(s) : 30-32
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Vol(s) : May-11
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Source : Brougham/field sheet
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Source : Brougham Fort/pencil survey
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Source Number : 1b
Source : Brougham Castle [Cumbria]
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Source : Brougham Castle/pencil survey
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Source : Brougham Fort and Castle/ink survey
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Source : Brougham Fort and Castle
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Source Number : 1c
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RL 23-AUG-65
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Source Number : 1d
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1971
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Source Number : 1e
Source : The Roman military defence of the British provinces in its later phases
Source details :
Page(s) : 114
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Vol(s) : 101
Source Number : 1f
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Birley, E, 1932. Materials for the History of Roman Brougham
Page(s) : 139
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Vol(s) : 32, 1932
Source Number : 1g
Source : List of ancient monuments in England: Volume 1, Northern England; Volume 2, Southern England; Volume 3, East Anglia and the Midlands
Source details :
Page(s) : 18
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Vol(s) : 1
Source Number : 1h
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : English Heritage Monument Record Form, Plan, 28-OCT-88
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Source Number : 1i
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Williamson, G C. 1922. Lady Anne Clifford
Page(s) : 271-2
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Monument Types:
Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 241
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : EH Property Number
External Cross Reference Number : 143
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1007186
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 52 NW 5
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 11988
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 11999
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1031614
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1031630
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 52 NW 5
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1965-08-23
End Date : 1965-08-23
Associated Activities : Primary, BROUGHAM CASTLE
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1987-01-01
End Date : 1987-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: BROUGHAM CASTLE SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1990-12-11
End Date : 1991-06-10
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: BROUGHAM CASTLE FIELD OBSERVATION
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1995-11-06
End Date : 1995-11-17
Associated Activities : Primary, BROUGHAM CASTLE (FORMER CUSTODIAN'S COTTAGE)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BROUGHAM CASTLE SIGNAGE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BROUGHAM CASTLE FOOTPATHS
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2014-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31