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Historic England Research Records

Milecastle 51

Hob Uid: 12630
Location :
Cumbria
Carlisle
Waterhead
Grid Ref : NY5930065490
Summary : The site of milecastle 51 at Wall Bowers, part of the defences on Hadrian's Wall. The milecastle was excavated in 1927, 1934 and 1936. The remains are in poor condition having been mutilated by animal tread and the dumping of rubble in the interior. The courses of the east and west wall are discernible as trampled robber trenches, 3.0m wide and up to 0.15m deep; the south side is less clear, and the north is buried beneath the modern road. An outer ditch is visible on the east side curving round to the south before fading; at best it is 4.5m wide and 0.3m deep.The milecastle earthworks are visible on air photographs and digital elevation models derived from Environment Agency lidar and Structure from Motion taken from 2017 specialist oblique photography, and were mapped by Historic England as part of the English Heritage Trust's 'Hadrian's Wall: Birdoswald Sector Survey'.
More information : (NY 5930 6549) Milecastle 51 (GS) (Remains of) (1)

Wall Bowers Milecastle had two stone barracks. It was surrounded by a ditch and its south gate had been rebuilt in the fourth century. It has never been completely excavated. (2)

Milecastle wall foundations clearly visible. (3)

The remains are in poor condition, consisting of turf covered foundations with traces of a ditch to the east. A site only.
Surveyed at 1:2500. (4)

The milecastle was excavated in 1927 (5a), 1934 (5b) and 1936 (5c). The remains at NY 5930 6549 are in poor condition having been mutilated by animal tread and the dumping of rubble in the interior. The courses of the east and west wall are discernible as trampled robber trenches, 3.0m wide and up to 0.15m deep; the south side is less clear, and the north is buried beneath the modern road. An outer ditch is visible on the east side curving round to the south before fading; at best it is 4.5m wide and 0.3m deep. (5)

Traces of this milecastle are visible as earthworks on aerial photographs taken in the 1930s.(7)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (8)

The milecastle earthworks are visible on air photographs and digital elevation models derived from Environment Agency lidar and Structure from Motion taken from 2017 specialist oblique photography, and were mapped by Historic England as part of the English Heritage Trust's 'Hadrian's Wall: Birdoswald Sector Survey'.
(9)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1957
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Bruce and Richmond 1966 Handbook to Roman Wall, 12th Edition
Page(s) : 175
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
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Source Number : 9
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : HE SfM ORTHO 05-JAN-2017
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Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 FDC c1950
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Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F2 BHP 15-NOV-71
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Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Keith Blood/11-MAY-1990/RCHME: Hadrian's Wall Project
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5a
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Simpson, F G 'Excavations on Hadrian's Wall, 1927'
Page(s) : 384
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 28, 1928
Source Number : 5b
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Simpson, F G, Richmond, I A and McIntyre, J 'Report of the Cumberland Exavation Committee for 1934'
Page(s) : 254-5
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 35, 1935
Source Number : 5c
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : Simpson, F G and Richmond, I A 'Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee for 1936'
Page(s) : 158
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 37, 1937
Source Number : 6
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 14-Jul-97
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Source Number : 7
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : RAF 193x
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Milecastle
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 28
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 5965/5
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 26074
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cumbria)
External Cross Reference Number : 280
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 56 NE 9
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1010489
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 12627
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 12622
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1449986
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, WALL BOWERS, MILECASTLE 51
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1898-01-01
End Date : 1898-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALL BOWERS, MILECASTLE 51
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1927-01-01
End Date : 1927-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, WALL BOWERS, MILECASTLE 51
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1934-01-01
End Date : 1934-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 56 NE 9
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1950-01-01
End Date : 1950-01-01
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 56 NE 9
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1971-11-15
End Date : 1971-11-15
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: HADRIAN'S WALL PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1993-08-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31