HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Historic England research records Result
Historic England research recordsPrintable version | About Historic England research records

Historic England Research Records

Appleby Castle

Hob Uid: 13288
Location :
Cumbria
Eden
Appleby-in-Westmorland
Grid Ref : NY6850019900
Summary : Royal castle. Originally a motte and bailey castle, replaced by a stone keep circa 1170 (see NY61NE23). A house (see NY61NE25) was built within the grounds of the bailey probably in the 14th century which incorporated a 13th century round tower and other remains of an earlier building. House part rebuilt in 1454 by Thomas de Clifford. Probably destroyed in the Civil War but described by Leland as ruinous in 1539. Restored in 1651-3 by Lady Anne Clifford, with additions of 1686-88, and 1695. A Roman well indicates the site of a possible settlement. The castle walls are mainly of sandstone rubble with some ashlar. The castle earthworks consist of a deep ditch enclosing both the keep platform and the bailey. The interior has been levelled and altered at various times though the possible layout of the motte and bailey can still be detected.
More information : [NY 685199] Appleby Castle Caesar's Tower Moat [twice] [GT] (1)

First or early Norman castle at Appleby thrown up by Ranulf de Meschines. It began as a mount-and-bailey of timbered earthwork, and its banks and ditches survive as one of the most impressive examples of Norman military engineering. Later the motte was cut down and on its truncated summit was built the fine stone tower. Whether this keep was in existence before the capture of Appleby in 1174 may be doubted.
The squared-off eastern end of the bailey indicates that the hall was always here; at first it was doubtless of timber, but seems in late Norman times to have been replaced by a hall of stone, of which a considerable portion of the eastern or outer wall remains in the existing structure.
The Norman hall and postern would seem to be older than the existing keep. Possibly an earlier keep was destroyed, in 1174. This 14th cent. building is designed as a hall-house upon the traditional lines, with a central hall, chapel and great chamber. Considerable Norman ashlar work still surviving in the wall which encloses both mount and bailey shows that the replacing of the timber defences was completed before the end of the 12th cent. The hemicylindrical towers were built in the 13th cent, one is still in an excellent state of preservation.
The great Gatehouse on the west side of the modern entrance was built by Lord John Clifford before 1422. A massive fragment survives; it was probably destroyed in the Civil War. Lord Thomas Clifford's reconstruction of the east range in 1454 is still recognisable. In the SE tower the 15th cent work seems to include everything above the 2nd floor.
The castle is described by Leland as ruinous in 1539, and in 1651-3 the castle was restored by the Countess of Pembroke. Of her work we may still indentify the mid-wall in the keep, the 4 turret heads thereon, the former brew-house range west of the entrance, extensive rebuilding of the Norman curtain, the remarkable steading in the western bailey, and the bee-house to the north. [marked 1 & 2 on inset plan.]
Between 1686 and 1688 the 4th Earl of Thanet built the existing eastern range embodying the shell of its md. predecessor, and it would seem that the wing extending westward from this work to the 13th cent. drum tower was added in 1695. (2)

Similar information. (3)

In good condition, see photograph of tower.
Published survey (25") of earthworks revised. (4)

[NY 6819] Appleby Castle [NR] Caesar's Tower [NR] (5)

Uninhabited parts scheduled as A.M's. (6)

Appleby Castle. Grade 1 (7)

In March 1967 repairs to some basement rooms at the castle revealed the top of a well-head framed and lined with timber; a distinctively Roman type. No objects of this date were hitherto known from Appleby. It was square, but had been crushed into a diamond shape. It could not be excavated, but was measured and photographed. The author concludes a Roman fort here, at the river crossing, 5 miles from Kirkby Thore. (8)

RCHM Westmorland file for Appleby parish has a cover note from H G Ramm to Dufty and a copy of the report on the probable Roman well found in 1967. The site, in the crook of the river, is held suitable for a Roman settlement. (9)

Additional reference. (10)

Listed by Cathcart King. (11)

Additional reference. (12)

First documented 1154-7, it was confiscated by the Crown in 1157 and regranted to the Morevilles. It was again confiscated by the Crown between 1173-9 and granted to the Valognes until 1190, after which it was reconfiscated. (13)

Listed with plan and illustrations. (14)

One of the principle border fortresses, Appleby Castle came into royal hands in 1157 following the surrender by King Malcolm. It was granted to Hugh de Morville, and later to the Cliffords who carried out much of the later building work. (15)

The earthworks of Appleby Castle are visible on lidar, at NY 6855 1992. The truncated motte and the various earthworks that formed the bailey are visible. A later imposition, a post medieval garden terrace is visible at NY 6855 1992. The features are extant on the latest 2013 lidar. (16)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1920
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society
Source details : (W Douglas Simpson)
Page(s) : 118-133
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 49 (1949)
Source Number : 10
Source : An inventory of the historical monuments in Westmorland
Source details :
Page(s) : 07-Dec
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : Castellarium anglicanum : an index and bibliography of the castles in England, Wales and the Islands. Volume II : Norfolk-Yorkshire and the islands
Source details :
Page(s) : 489
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Feb-83
Source Number : 12
Source : Ordnance Survey guide to castles in Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 164
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : Castles, conquest and charters : collected papers
Source details :
Page(s) : 102
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 14
Source : The medieval fortified buildings of Cumbria : an illustrated gazetteer and research guide
Source details :
Page(s) : 252-4
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : vol.29
Source Number : 15
Source : The history of the King's Works, volume 2 : the Middle Ages
Source details :
Page(s) : 553
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 16
Source : Light detection and ranging (lidar) airborne survey
Source details : LIDAR Environment Agency LAST RETURN 19-NOV-2013
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : Register of parks and gardens of special historic interest in England
Source details : Cumbria (1985)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : Part 9
Source Number : 2a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Castles and Fortified Towers, Curwin, J F, 1913.
Page(s) : 77
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : The castles of Great Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 93
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 BHP 05-FEB-69
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : OS 6" 1957
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : Ancient Monuments of England and Wales 1965 104 (M.B.W.)
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest
Source details : District of Eden, 21/03/1985
Page(s) : 07-Sep
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Holmes M 1974 Appleby Castle (handbook) 1
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 9
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : R Farrar note, Roman Military North files
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Well, Settlement
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Conjectural Evidence
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Built by 1422
Monument End Date : 1422
Monument Start Date :
Monument Type : Gatehouse
Evidence : Ruined Building
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : By the end of the C12
Monument End Date : 1199
Monument Start Date : 1066
Monument Type : Motte And Bailey, Keep
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : rebuilt in stone late C12/early C13
Monument End Date : 1232
Monument Start Date : 1167
Monument Type : Curtain Wall, Interval Tower
Evidence : Structure
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : C14 construction
Monument End Date : 1399
Monument Start Date : 1300
Monument Type : Castle, House, Great Hall
Evidence : Extant Building, Sub Surface Deposit
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : Part rebuilt 1454
Monument End Date : 1454
Monument Start Date : 1454
Monument Type : Castle, House
Evidence : Structure, Documentary Evidence
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Restored in 1651-3
Monument End Date : 1653
Monument Start Date : 1651
Monument Type : Keep, Brewhouse, Laundry
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Additions of 1686-1688
Monument End Date : 1688
Monument Start Date : 1686
Monument Type : Great Hall
Evidence : Extant Building
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Additions in 1695
Monument End Date : 1695
Monument Start Date : 1695
Monument Type : Great Hall, Garden Terrace
Evidence : Extant Building, Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : CU 324
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : NBR Index Number
External Cross Reference Number : 7541
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 73719
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 73614
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Listed Building List Entry Legacy Uid
External Cross Reference Number : 73618
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Unified Designation System UID
External Cross Reference Number : 1003276
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Cumbria)
External Cross Reference Number : 1709
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 61 NE 1
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 11999
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1070180
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 502430
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 502433
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 502434
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1339780
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1625621
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 61 NE 1
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1969-02-05
End Date : 1969-02-05
Associated Activities : Primary, INVESTIGATION BY RCHME/EH ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Activity type : ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-11-14
End Date : 1995-11-14
Associated Activities : Primary, LAND AT APPLEBY CASTLE
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2015-01-01
End Date : 2015-12-31