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Historic England Research Records

Carvoran Magna Roman Fort

Hob Uid: 13857
Location :
Northumberland
Northumberland
Greenhead
Grid Ref : NY6655065710
Summary : The site of the Roman fort of Carvoran Magna. It is visible as a turf covered platform, surrounded by a ditch, with some exposed masonry at the north-west angle tower. It measures 135m by 111m over the ramparts and encloses and area just under 1.5ha. The remains of the bath-house are recorded within the fort. It is located 220m south of Hadrian's Wall and 160m south of the Vallum and was probably constructed as the same time as the Stanegate c.AD 80 and was incorporated into the Hadrianic frontier defence in c.AD 122. Ditches of a another possible fort were found east of Carvoran House in 1985. Like Vindolanda a possible sequence was of a smaller fort being replaced by one or more large forts before the construction of the visible small stone fort.
More information : [NY 6655 6571] MAGNA ROMAN FORT [G.S.]
[NY 6650 6579] Bronze Modius found AD 1915 (1)

The fort measures 435 ft. north to south, and 360 ft. east to west. It was given an outer stone wall in AD 136-37, but probably superseded an earlier phase as attested by the bronze modius (AD 90-91) found near the N.W. angle in 1915 (now in Chester Museum), and the upper part of a tombstone of Flavian style. Apart from the N.W. angle-tower, which is exposed, little is known of the internal buildings, except for early descriptions of a bath-house near the S.W. angle. The Roman name of this fort is more likely to be Banna rather than Magna. (2)

Resurveyed at 1:2500. The fort has been extensively mutilated by cultivation, and little of its rampart survives beyond the N.W. angle (where it is substantially intact) and the "ploughed-down" south side. There are no structural remains, other than the base of the angle-tower previously noted. (3)

Name 'MAGNIS' accepted for 4th edition R-B Map. (4)

Named MAGNIS (5)

Archaeological history summarised by Birley (2) and Daniels (6) to 1978. The only exposed masonry is the north-west tower; elsewhere the defences are reduced to a turf-covered outward-facing scarp. No internal features are visible. Coin now recorded as NE 66 NE 57. Tombstone now recorded as NE 66 NE 58. (7)

Scheduled (8)

The west and north sides of the ditch defences and traces of the southern rampart of Carvoran Roman fort, are visible as earthworks on air photographs. The foundations of the rectangular tower in the north-west corner are also visible. There is no evidence for other phases of fort on the air photographs made availble to the Hadrian's Wall NMP Project. Cropmarks of a possible road lie to the south of the fort and is recorded in NY 66 NE 66 371, UID 1393618. (9)

A 12 hectare geophysical survey in 1999 included the stone fort and the settlement area to the north, south, and east. Some details of the internal fort buildings were revealed. Extensive traces of buildings were revealed to the south-east of the fort on the line of the Stanegate roman Road. Excavation in 2002 confirmed destruction of the remains by stone robbing at the fort¿s south gate, as well as the east and west walls. A further 15 hectare geophysical survey was undertaken in 2000. The extent of the fort was well-defined, although the full extent of the settlement was not surveyed. The evidence suggested that the buildings appear to have developed to the east and south of the fort along the route of the Stanegate. Some appear to be workshops or for storage, as well as residential. Outside the east gate of the fort are two large buildings, one of which appears to have an internal courtyard. No evidence for buildings could be seen north of the fort. (10-12)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (13)



Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" (Provisional edition) 1946
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 193-96, 266-7
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 11
Source : Britannia : a journal of Romano-British and kindred studies
Source details : Article by J A Biggins and D J A Taylor, Timescape Surveys
Page(s) : 330-332
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 32, 2001
Source Number : 12
Source : Hadrian's Wall 1999-2009
Source details :
Page(s) : 124-127
Figs. : 33
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 24-MAY-66
Page(s) :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ordnance Survey Map of Roman Britain 1978
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 407-8
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Handbook to the Roman Wall with the Cumbrian coast and outpost forts
Source details :
Page(s) : 187-91
Figs. :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 7
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Keith Blood/05-JAN-1988/RCHME: Hadrian's Wall Project
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 14-Jul-97
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 9
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR NY6665/1 (GBJ 13544/17) 02-MAR-1976
Page(s) :
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Vol(s) :
Source Number : 10
Source : Vindolanda research reports, new series
Source details : The excavations of 2001 and 2002: Civilian settlement, second-century forts, and the pre-Hadrianic occupation, with a report on the trial excavations at Carvoran, Bardon Mill.', by Birley, A
Page(s) :
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 1, 2003

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Fort, Tower, Ditch
Evidence : Earthwork, Demolished Building, Sub Surface Deposit

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 26069
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : ND 28
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 6665/16
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 6665/15
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 66 NE 12
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 573352
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 952429
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1001823
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 1393582
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1391023
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1393618
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1398485
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1398488
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 911991
Relationship type : Is referred to by
Associated Monuments : 573352
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1036390
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 13941
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : CARVORAN (BANNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1830-01-01
End Date : 1831-12-31
Associated Activities : CARVORAN (BANNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1886-01-01
End Date : 1886-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 66 NE 12
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1966-05-24
End Date : 1966-05-24
Associated Activities : CARVORAN (BANNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1973-01-01
End Date : 1973-12-31
Associated Activities : RCHME: HADRIAN'S WALL PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1993-08-01
Associated Activities : CARVORAN (BANNA)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1997-01-01
End Date : 1997-12-31
Associated Activities : CARVORAN (MAGNA)
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND AT CARVORAN
Activity type : WATCHING BRIEF
Start Date : 2010-01-01
End Date : 2010-12-31