HeritageGateway - Home
Site Map
Text size: A A A
You are here: Home > > > > Historic England research records Result
Historic England research recordsPrintable version | About Historic England research records

Historic England Research Records

Monument Number 15186

Hob Uid: 15186
Location :
Northumberland
Bardon Mill
Grid Ref : NY7830066820
Summary : A defended settlement of Iron Age date and a signal station of Roman date, situated in a prominent location on the northern edge of Barcombe Hill. The settlement is visible as a roughly oval enclosure, 95 metres north east to south west by 42 metres north west to south east, with an inner and outer bank and a ditch. The stone and earth inner bank is up to 2 metres wide and is best preserved on the south and eastern sides. The surrounding ditch is on average 6 metres wide and 1 metre deep. Outside of the ditch there is a second bank on average 3 metres wide and standing to a maximum of 0.6 metres high where it is best preserved on the south side. The northern side of the enclosure has been disturbed by a series of quarry holes thought to be Roman in date and associated with the construction of Hadrian's Wall, but most likely exploited in the post-medieval period too. Within the north west corner of the enclosure there are the well preserved remains of a turf-built Roman signal station, visible as a roughly rectangular enclosure with rounded corners, 17 metres east to west by 13 metres north to south and standing to a maximum of 0.8 metres high. It is surrounded by a broad ditch on average 3 metres wide. Within the enclosure is a raised central platform, and the remains of at least one causeway giving access to the ditch is visible. The signal station was the subject of limited excavation in 1939 and again in the early 1950s; both excavations uncovered a limestone flagged base to the turf rampart measuring 4.2 metres wide which was cut into the rampart of the earlier defended settlement. The later excavation also recorded the discovery of a small oven with a stoke hole to the north east, a large amount of charcoal and Roman pottery of first century date. It is thought that the signal station pre-dated the construction of Hadrian's Wall and was only in use for a short time during the later first century AD. The site is visible on air photographs.
More information : [NY 78256682] Roman Signal Station [GS] (Site of) Earthwork [O.E.] (1)

On Barcombe Hill is a pre-Roman univallate settlement, with a Roman signal station in the N.W. corner. (2)

Excavation of the latter yielded no dateable material. (3)

Scheduled. (4)

The work, correctly described, is in good condition, apart from the north side which has been severly mutilated by "coffin quarrying". Resurveyed at 1:2500. (5)

Barcombe Hill Roman "signal station" was alleged to have contained a timber-buit tower according to Sir W Aitchison who trial trenched the site, but no finds were apparently made. Further trenching by I Crawford in the early 1950s revealed a limestone flagged surface cut into the rampart of the enclosing Iron Age fort. A small stone oven, masses of charcoal and sherds of Flavian pottery were also found. Woodfield considered occupation of the "signal station" to be short and added that evidence for a Flavian signalling system was inadequate; a lookout post, more specifically connected with Chesterholm (NY 76 NE 16) being likely. Plans. (6)

Jobey referred to Sir W Aitchison's excavation notes etc of 1939 which substantiated the evidence of the flagged rampart foundation seen by Crawford (authority 6). No evidence of a timber tower was recorded; the only internal feature being a stretch of paving within the line of the presumed east entrance. Conflation of plans from both 1939 and early 1950s excavations indicated a rectangular turf-built enclosure with rounded corners and single ditch, approximating in size and form to Brownhart Law (NT 70 NE). (7)

NY 783668. Barcombe Hill. Listed as Iron Age univallate hill fort of less than 1 acre. (8)

NY 783 668. Barcombe. Listed in gazetteer as a univallate hillfort covering 0.40ha. (9)

NY 782 669. Camp at Barcombe N of Thorngrafton Common. Scheduled No ND/318. (10)

Scheduled (11)

The Iron Age hillfort and Roman signal station are visible as earthworks on air photographs and was mapped at a scale of 1:10,000 for Hadrian's Wall NMP project. Since the hillfort has two banks and a ditch it is technically multivallate rather than uninvallate as listed above. The northern ditch has been extensively quarried and the quarry pits extend to the west and east of the site, in total 450 metres in length. The date of this quarrying, although attributed as possibly Roman in date, most probably has been exploited in the post medieval period, as there is extensive post medieval quarrying in the general area. There are traces of post medieval ridge and furrow ploughing in the interior of the hillfort. (12)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (13)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" 1957
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : (G Jobey)
Page(s) : 26
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 43, 1965
Source Number : 11
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 19-Mar-99
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 12
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : CUCAP BLL9 16-JAN-1973
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 13
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number :
Source : Baracombe Hill/ink survey
Source details :
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 3
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 147
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : MOW. 1957. Ancient Monuments England and Wales
Page(s) : 80
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 RWE 28-OCT-66
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : (P Woodfield)
Page(s) : 71-77
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 44, 1966
Source Number : 7
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : (G Jobey)
Page(s) : 183-5
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 47, 1969
Source Number : 8
Source : Later prehistory from the Trent to the Tyne
Source details :
Page(s) : 46
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 20 (ii)
Source Number : 9
Source : British Hillforts: an index
Source details :
Page(s) : 140
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 62
Source Number : 10
Source : County list of Scheduled Monuments : March 1994
Source details : Northumberland
Page(s) : 32
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Iron Age
Display Date : Iron Age
Monument End Date : 43
Monument Start Date : -800
Monument Type : Hillfort
Evidence : Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Late AD C1
Monument End Date : 100
Monument Start Date : 67
Monument Type : Signal Station, Quarry
Evidence : Sub Surface Deposit, Earthwork
Monument Period Name : Post Medieval
Display Date : Post Medieval
Monument End Date : 1901
Monument Start Date : 1540
Monument Type : Quarry
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : ND 318
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 28587
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northumberland)
External Cross Reference Number : 6569
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 76 NE 19
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1402312
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 911991
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, BARCOMBE HILL, THORNGRAFTON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1939-01-01
End Date : 1939-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, BARCOMBE HILL, THORNGRAFTON
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1950-01-01
End Date : 1959-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 76 NE 19
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1966-10-28
End Date : 1966-10-28
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31