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Historic England Research Records

Haltonchesters

Hob Uid: 18157
Location :
Northumberland
Northumberland
Whittington
Grid Ref : NY9974068450
Summary : The site of Halton Chesters (ONNUM) Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall. The fort and road are visible as earthworks and parchmarks on air photographs. It was constructed in circa AD 126 and extended in the Severan period which gave it an L-shaped plan. A Hadrianic granary was identified in the south-west part of the fort, and a large building complex immediately to the west. A destructive fire affected an extensive area of the fort, and may be contemporary with the destruction deposit recorded at nearby Corbridge. Excavations also revealed evidence for late 4th century rebuilding on the site.
More information : [NY 997684] Haltonchesters [T.I.] ONNVM ROMAN FORT [G.S.C.] (1)

The Hadrianic fort, built in the 2nd century measures some 460 ft. north to south, by 410 ft. east to west, and belongs to a secondary stage in the Wall development. A reconstruction, started at the beginning of the 3rd c. included a westward extension, which added half an acre to the original area, and gave the fort its present unique 'L shaped' plan. An internal bath-house, sited to NY 9970 6850 containing at least eleven rooms was discovered in the north east compartment of the fort when it was first ploughed in 1827. (2-5)

Haltonchesters is bisected by a modern road, north of which, the fort's ramparts are represented by indeterminate ground swellings only. No visible remains of the bath house exist. South of the road, the outline of the fort is well-defined though mutilated. The unintelligible remains of internal buildings can also be traced.
Published survey (25") revised.
The Vallum's course past the fort is not visible. (6)

In 1960, excavations at Haltonchesters revealed 4 buildings of the Hadrianic period - a granary next to the headquarters building; next westwards a shorter building with a suspended floor like a granary but no buttresses (this was replaced in the Theodosian period); to the S. a small building of unknown function and a probable workshop on the West. These last two buildings were replaced in the Severan period. Excavations by J.P. Gillam and M.G. Jarrett. (7)

The archaeological history of the Roman fort at Haltonchesters, identified as ONNUM (8a), has been summarized by Birley (2) and Daniels (8b). Excavations undertaken in 1937 (8c) show that the Wall had already been built, at least in part, and the ditch dug before the decision was taken to move the frontier garrison up onto the Wall no later than AD 126. Subsequently the fort was extended to the W to the S of the Wall to form a broad, reversed L-shape, and this extension was found by excavation to be Severan (8d). The fort, reduced to a disturbed earthwork, was examined in 1989 by RCHME Newcastle during the Hadrians Wall Survey, when it was decided to produce a 1:500 survey and detailed textual description of the remains to take advantage of the unusually dry summer which had revealed parchmarks of buried features in the N ploughed-down part of the fort. (8)

The results of the RCHME survey, the plan and the description, were fully published in 1990. (9)

Scheduled (10)

A Roman fort and is visible as earthworks and cropmarks on air photographs at NY 9972 6846. The fort is visible as described above. To the south of the road the fort platform is extant but the interior features are largely unintelligable and were mapped as extents of area only. To the north of the road a slight platform survives. Parchmarks show the northern tower of the west gate as well as other internal features. A road, also visible as a parchmark, exits the fort through the north gate and branches before fading (NY 96 NE 138/ UID 1014457). A possible building is visible to the east of the road.
A broad depression, interpreted as the denuded vallum ditch (NY 96 NE195/ UID 1451435) appears to join the broad southern ditch of the fort. (11-13)

Recent publication of the 1960-1 excavations describes the Hadrianic granary in the south-west part of the fort and a large building complex immediately to the west. A destructive fire affected an extensive area of the fort, and may be contemporary with the destruction deposit recorded at nearby Corbridge. (14-15)

Depiction in the James Irwin Coates archive: 'S.E. Angle: Hunnum. 1879'. (16)

Located on the English Heritage map of Hadrian's Wall 2010. (17)

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 1:2500 1962
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Source Number : 2
Source : Research on Hadrian's Wall
Source details :
Page(s) : 171
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 8c
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : Simpson F G and Richmond I A 'The Fort on Hadrian's Wall at Halton'
Page(s) : 151-71
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 14, 1937
Source Number : 8d
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : Jarrett M G 'The Defences of the Roman Fort at Halton Chesters'
Page(s) : 177-90
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 37, 1959
Source Number : 9
Source : The Roman fort at Haltonchesters : an analytical field survey
Source details :
Page(s) : 55-62
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Vol(s) : 18
Source Number : 10
Source : Scheduled Monument Notification
Source details : 14-Jul-97
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Source Number : 11
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : NMR NY9968/23 (NMR 17417/4) 13-Jan-2000
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Source Number : 12
Source : Oblique aerial photograph reference number
Source details : CUCAP (CLY29) 17-May-1980
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Source Number : 13
Source : Vertical aerial photograph reference number
Source details : CUCAP (RC8 HB 226) 30-Jul-1984
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Source Number : 14
Source : Hadrian's Wall 1999-2009
Source details :
Page(s) : 95-97
Figs. : 20
Plates :
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Source Number : 15
Source : Excavations directed by J P Gillam at the Roman fort of Haltonchesters, 1960-61
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Source Number : 16
Source : Hadrian's Wall: archaeological research by English Heritage 1976-2000
Source details :
Page(s) : 16
Figs. : 34
Plates :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details : (M.G. Jarrett)
Page(s) : 177-90
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 37, 1959
Source Number : 17
Source : An Archaeological Map of Hadrian's Wall, 1:25,000 scale
Source details :
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Source : Haltonchesters, eastern part/pencil survey
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Source : Haltonchesters/ink survey
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Source : Haltonchesters, western part/pencil survey
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : History of Northumberland III pt.II 1840 (J. Hodgson)
Page(s) : 317
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Source Number : 5
Source : Aerial photograph
Source details : (CUC D.N.080 9.7.49)
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Source Number : 6
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : F1 ECW 24-FEB-1966
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Source Number : 7
Source : The journal of Roman studies
Source details :
Page(s) : 164
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Plates :
Vol(s) : 51, 1961
Source Number : 8
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : Keith Blood/14-SEP-1989/RCHME: Haltonchesters Survey
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Source Number : 8a
Source : The place-names of Roman Britain
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Source Number : 8b
Source : Handbook to the Roman Wall with the Cumbrian coast and outpost forts
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date :
Monument End Date : 136
Monument Start Date : 116
Monument Type : Fort, Building, Gate Tower
Evidence : Earthwork, Cropmark
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 232
Monument Start Date : 200
Monument Type : Fort, Building, Gate Tower
Evidence : Earthwork, Cropmark

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : ND 28(11)
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Hadrian's Wall Project Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 9968/6
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 26046
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northumberland)
External Cross Reference Number : 8710
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 96 NE 2
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1014457
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1008860
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 18280
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1451580
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1451619
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1451435
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1451541
Relationship type : General association
Associated Monuments : 1014455
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1036393
Relationship type :
Associated Monuments : 1014444
Relationship type :

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : HALTON CHESTERS (ONNUM) BATHS
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1827-01-01
End Date : 1827-12-31
Associated Activities : HALTON CHESTERS (ONNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1897-01-01
End Date : 1897-12-31
Associated Activities : HALTON CHESTERS (VALLUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1909-01-01
End Date : 1910-12-31
Associated Activities : HALTON CHESTERS (ONNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1935-01-01
End Date : 1936-12-31
Associated Activities : HALTON CHESTERS (ONNUM)
Activity type : EXCAVATION
Start Date : 1956-01-01
End Date : 1961-12-31
Associated Activities : FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 96 NE 2
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1966-02-24
End Date : 1966-02-24
Associated Activities : RCHME: HADRIAN'S WALL PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1988-01-01
End Date : 1993-08-01
Associated Activities : RCHME: HALTONCHESTERS SURVEY
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1989-07-27
End Date : 1989-12-20
Associated Activities : HALTON CHESTERS (ONNUM)
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1995-01-01
End Date : 1995-12-31
Associated Activities : HALTONCHESTERS (ONNUM)
Activity type : GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Start Date : 1999-01-01
End Date : 1999-12-31
Associated Activities : ENGLISH HERITAGE: HADRIAN'S WALL WHS MAPPING PROJECT, NMP
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2002-01-01
End Date : 2008-12-31
Associated Activities : LAND ADJACENT TO HALTON CHESTERS
Activity type : EVALUATION
Start Date : 2008-01-01
End Date : 2009-12-31