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Battle Of Hexham 1464

Hob Uid: 18600
Location :
Northumberland
Corbridge
Grid Ref : NY9520061000
Summary : Battle of Hexham 1464 (15 May). Part of the War of the Roses. The Lancastrians under Duke of Somerset challenged the Yorkist commander Lord Montagu. Somerset was captured and executed. Montagu helped secure the throne for Edward IV for several years, for which he was rewarded with Earldom of Northumberland.
More information : [Name NY 95216100] Hexham Levels Site of BATTLE [G.T.]
A.D.1463. (1)

At the end of 1463 the Duke of Somerset returned to the Lancastrian faction and set in train a more agressive policy of consolidating support for King Henry VI on the margins of the kingdom, in Northumberland and Wales. He faced the Yorkists in a pitched battle, only to suffer defeat at the hands of Lord Montagu at Hedgley Moor on 25 April 1464. Nevertheless, the premature departure from the field of all but Sir Ralph Percy's contingent ensured that the majority of the small Lancastrian army was preserved intact. After retreating to Tynedale, Somerset prepared to challenge Montagu once again. The Lancastrians camped near Hexham, inviting attack. On 14 May, a 4,000 strong Yorkist army left Newcastle-upon-Tyne to give battle the following day. It is hard to distinguish where the battle took place and the nature of the battle as written sources for the battle are scanty and do not tell us a great deal. Four sites have been put forward as the battlefield. The traditional location is on the Hexham Levels whilst the second location offered is Swallowship Hill, further sites near Dilston and Shaw farm to the NW of Hexham. In addition, documentary sources also offer conflicting views on the nature of the battle. One source accounts for a battle which was keenly contested whilst a second source states that the Lancastrians fled as soon as they saw the enemy. However, what is certain is that the Lancastrians, again, suffered defeat at the hands of Lord Montagu's Yorkist army. Most of the Lancastrian leaders were taken and the Yorkists' executioners dispatched Somerset, Roos and Hungerford. The Battle of Hexham brought to a close a clear phase of the Wars of the Roses. The partisans of the House of Lancaster by themselves lost the ability to challenge the rule of King Edward IV.

[NY 96076210] The Battle of HEXHAM which brought to an end the four
year warfare between HENRY VI and EDWARD IV, was fought, according
to various sources, sometime between 1462 and 1464, but an official
source, the Year Book de TERMINO PASCHAE, 4 Ed.IV, which describes
the site, gives the exact date of the battle as 15th May 1464.

The site as marked by the O.S. is described by an early writer
(J.H. RAMSEY)(c) as being "...a very bad battlefield with one
entrance and no outlet", and it is hardly possible that this is the
correct scene of the battle; instead it seems that SWALLOWSHIP HILL,
which is described by the writers T.C. ANSTEY & J. GIBSON (a), and
also suits the description of WORCESTER and the Year Book, is
tactically the far superior and more probably the correct site. grid ref - 396075-562095

C.1778 it was reported that the battle happened at a place called
LENNOLDS... and that the lines of entrenchment are still to be seen
(b) (2)

The lines of entrenchment (b) are possibly the old river banks at NY
956622. There is nothing to be seen either at the O.S. site (1) or
at Swallowship Hill. (3)

Hedley thinks the battle took place to the NE, on the lower ground
around Dilston [NY 9763] (4) grid ref - 396932-563241

"Three weeks later they [the Lancastrians] had collected their last
levies, and Somerset had assumed command. On May 15th [1464] they
were arrayed on the Linnels, three miles from Hexham, and challenged
Montagu to another fight. But when he closed with them, and they saw
his superior numbers, all melted away from Somerset's banner, save
500 lances." (5)

Additional possible site near Shaws Farm grid ref - 392092-564721

Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : Ordnance Survey Map (Scale / Date)
Source details : 6" 1920-46
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 57-68
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 30 (1952)
Source Number : 7
Source : The Ordnance Survey complete guide to the battlefields of Britain
Source details :
Page(s) : 110
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 2a
Source : Archaeologia Aeliana : or miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity
Source details :
Page(s) : 6
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 6
Source Number : 2b
Source : Gentleman's Magazine
Source details :
Page(s) : 507
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) : 1778
Source Number : 2c
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Ramsay J. 1892. Lancaster and York, 303
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
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Source Number : 3
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : 13/06/1956
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 4
Source : Field Investigators Comments
Source details : 23/03/1960
Page(s) :
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Source Number : 4d
Source : Oral information, correspondence (not archived) or staff comments
Source details : WP Hedley Hon Corr 23/03/1960
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Oman C. Political History of England, 417
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :
Source Number : 6
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : English Heritage. 1995. Battlefield Report: Hexham 1464
Page(s) :
Figs. :
Plates :
Vol(s) :

Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Medieval
Display Date : 15th May 1464
Monument End Date : 1464
Monument Start Date : 1464
Monument Type : Battlefield
Evidence : Documentary Evidence

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : SMR Number (Northumberland)
External Cross Reference Number : 9025
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : NY 96 SE 43
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 96 SE 43
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1956-06-13
End Date : 1956-06-13
Associated Activities : Primary, FIELD OBSERVATION ON NY 96 SE 43
Activity type : FIELD OBSERVATION (VISUAL ASSESSMENT)
Start Date : 1960-06-23
End Date : 1960-06-23
Associated Activities : Primary, NHPP BATTLEFIELDS PROJECT
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 2011-01-01
End Date : 2012-12-31